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Among the best names of Allah which he introduced Himself to His slaves in the Quran is al Affuw – the Oft pardoning.
Al Afuuw means the One who is Oft pardoning of His slaves’s sins. It means that Allah is the One who Forgives sins and OVERLOOK offences.
Ghaffur/ Ghaffir meanscovering while al Afuuw implies cancelling all sins.
Allah overlooks many sins and wrongdoings otherwise, He would have destroyed the world and annihilated all the people
An Nahl 16: 61
And if Allâh were to seize mankind for their wrong-doing, He would not leave on it (the earth) a single moving (living) creature, but He postpones them for an appointed term and when their term comes, neither can they delay nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment). (61)
A component of Allah’s Pardoning of His Slaves is that He conceals the sins, of His slaves in the dunya and the Hereafter. He also informs people of their sins, forgives them and then substitutes their sins with good deeds.
Allah is the Pardoner, the One who excuses people. How is His Pardoning of the people different from the way people use this attribute? Allaah is Forgiving and Merciful. From this angle, we could say that Allaah’s Pardoning is paired with Forgiveness and Mercy.
For example, how do the people forgive? When you ask for forgiveness, is everyone always ready to forgive you? What about the people who forgave you? Do they always forgive you with complete forgiveness or do they come back later and mention what you did, although they say that they forgave you…?
When Allaah (`Azza wa Jall) forgives someone, He expunges their record, meaning he erases ones record (completely). If Allaah (`Azza wa Jall) excused you for something, you will not have to face Allaah and be asked about that thing.
اتق الله حيثما كنت وأتبع السيئة الحسنة تمحها
Fear Allaah wherever you are
and follow up a bad deed with a good one,
it will wipe (the former) out.
Hadith narrated by Abu Dhar.
One of the ways Allaah that will pardon you is if you obey what His Messenger ﷺ has guided us to. If you make Tawbah from your sin, Allaah will pardon you for your sin. He has promised us this. If you repent to Allaah sincerely, He will forgive you and He will pardon your sin. The one who has made repentance from his sin is like the one who has not sinned at all, because the Pardoning of Allaah is complete and perfect. No trace. No bad feelings. Nothing left. Allaah erases the bad deed from your record and He replaces it with a good deed. Who does that from the people?
Who will pardon you, THEN give you credit for good things after you’ve transgressed against them? Who considers you better than what you were before (after you sought their forgiveness)? But Allaah (`Azza wa Jall) is perfect in His Pardoning, and when He Pardons you, He loves that you sought His Forgiveness. This is from the completeness of His Attribute of Pardoning
Allah inform us that the believers invoke Allah and say
Al Baqara 2: 286
وَٱعۡفُ عَنَّا وَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَٱرۡحَمۡنَآۚ أَنتَ مَوۡلَٮٰنَا فَٱنصُرۡنَا عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرِينَ
Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Supporter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.
Aisyah radiallahhu anha asked teh Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wasalam what to say during the Night of decree. he told her to say, “O Allah! You are Oft pardoning and You love Pardoning. Pardon me. (Tirmidhi)
When Prophet Muhamamd sallallahu alalihi wasalam woke up at night to pray, he used to say “O Allah! I seek refuge in Your Pleasure from Your anger and in Your Prdoning from Your Punishment”
Forgiving and pardoning Others
Allah asked people to forgive whoever did wrong against them if they are able to retaliate, and He PROMISED to forgive them if they did so
An Nisa 4: 149
لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡجَهۡرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا (١٤٨
إِن تُبۡدُواْ خَيۡرًا أَوۡ تُخۡفُوهُ أَوۡ تَعۡفُواْ عَن سُوٓءٍ۬ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّ۬ا قَدِيرًا (١٤٩
Allâh does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allâh is Ever All¬Hearer, All¬Knower. (148)
Whether you (mankind) disclose (by good words of thanks) a good deed (done to you in the form of a favour by someone), or conceal it, or pardon an evil, … verily, Allâh is Ever Oft-Pardoning, All-Powerful. (149)
An Noor 24: 22
And let not those among you who are blessed with graces and wealth swear not to give (any sort of help) to their kinsmen, Al-Masâkîn (the poor), and those who left their homes for Allâh’s Cause. Let them pardon and forgive. Do you not love that Allâh should forgive you?
Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? Let us learn the beautiful story behind his ayah. May we be given the same eemaan. HERE.
Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam said, “Charity does not reduce one’s own wealth, pardoning others increaes one’s own power and dignity, and whoever humbles himself before Allah will be elevated instead.”
And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (22)
2. The perfect Names of |Allah – Dr Umar S al Ashqar
The Muslims Envoy to Madinah – How Sa’ad ibn Mu’adh entered Islam.
After the Pledge (in the form of an oath had been taken) the Prophet [pbuh] sent to Yathrib (Madinah) Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair Al-‘Abdari [R], the first Muslim ‘ambassador’ to teach the people there the doctrines of Islam, give them practical guidance and make attempts at propagating the Islam among those who still professed polytheism. As‘ad bin Zurarah hosted him in Madinah. So prepared was the ground, and so zealous the propagation that the Islam spread rapidly from house to house and from tribe to tribe. There were various cheerful and promising aspects of success that characterized Mus‘ab’s task. One day Mus‘ab and As‘ad were on their way to the habitations of Bani ‘Abd Al-Ashhal and Bani Zafar, when they went into the premises of the latter clan. There they sat near a well conversing with some new converts. Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Usaid bin Hudair, chiefs of the two clans heard of this meeting, so Usaid approached the Muslims armed with his lance while the other Sa‘d excused himself on grounds that As‘ad was his maternal cousin. Usaid came closer cursing and swearing and accused the two men of befooling people weak of heart, and ordered that they stop it altogether. Mus‘ab calmly invited him to sit saying, “If you are pleased with our talk, you can accept it; should you hold it in abhorrence, you could freely immunize yourself against what you hate.” “That’s fair,” said Usaid, pierced his lance in the sand, listened to Mus‘ab and then heard some verses of the Noble Qur’an. His face bespoke satisfaction and pleasure before uttering any words of approval. He asked the two men about the procedures pertinent to embracing Islam. They asked him to observe washing, purge his garment, bear witness to the Truth and then perform two Rak‘a. He responded and did exactly what he was asked to do, and then said there was a man (Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh) whose people would never hang back if he followed the Islam. He then left to see Sa‘d and his people. Sa‘d could immediately understand that Usaid had changed. To a question posed by Sa‘d, Usaid said that two men were ready to comply with whatever orders they received. He then managed a certain situation that provided the two men with a chance to talk with Sa‘d privately. The previous scene with Usaid recurred and Sa‘d embraced Islam, and directly turned to his people swearing that he would never talk with them until they had believed in Allah, and in His Messenger. Hardly did the evening of that day arrive when all the men and women of that group of Arabians embraced Islam with the exception of one, Al-Usairim, who hung back until the Day of Uhud. On that day he embraced Islam and fought the polytheists but was eventually killed before observing any prostration in the way of prayer. The Prophet [pbuh] commented saying: “He has done a little but his reward is great.”
Prophet Muhamamd sallallahu alaihi wasalam was impressed with what Sa’ad ibn Mu’adh said when prepearing for battle of Badr
On account of the new grave developments, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) held an advisory military emergency meeting to review the ongoing situation and exchange viewpoints with the army leaders. Admittedly, some Muslims feared the horrible encounter and their courage began to waver; in this regard, Allâh says:
“As your Lord caused you (O Muhammad [Peace be upon him) ] to go out from your home with the Truth, and verily, a party among the believers disliked it, disputing with you concerning the Truth after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they were looking (at it).” [8:5, 6]
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) apprised his men of the gravity of the situation and asked for their advice. Abu Bakr was the first who spoke on the occasion and assured the Prophet (Peace be upon him) of the unreserved obedience to his command. ‘Umar was the next to stand up and supported the views expressed by his noble friend. Then Al-Miqdad bin ‘Amr got up and said: “O Messenger of Allâh! Proceed where Allâh directs you to, for we are with you. We will not say as the Children of Israel said to Moses (Peace be upon him):
“Go you and your Lord and fight and we will stay here;”
Rather we shall say:
“Go you and yourLord and fight and we will fight along with you.”
By Allâh! If you were to take us to Bark Al-Ghimad, we will still fight resolutely with you against its defenders until you gained it.”
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) thanked him and blessed him.
The three leaders who spoke were from the Emigrants, who only constituted a minor section of the army. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) wanted, and for the more reason, to hear the Helpers’ view because they were the majority of the soldiers and were expected to shoulder the brunt of the war activities. Moreover, the clauses of Al-‘Aqabah Pledge did not commit them to fighting beyond their territories.
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) then said: “Advise me my men!”
by which he meant the Helpers, in particular. Upon this Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh stood up and said: “By Allâh, I feel you want us (the Helpers) to speak.” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) directly said: “Oh, yes!” Sa‘d said: “O Prophet of Allâh! We believe in you and we bear witness to what you have vouchsafed to us and we declare in unequivocal terms that what you have brought is the Truth. We give you our firm pledge of obedience and sacrifice. We will obey you most willingly in whatever you command us, and by Allâh, Who has sent you with the Truth, if you were to ask us to plunge into the sea, we will do that most readily and not a man of us will stay behind. We do not grudge the idea of encounter with the enemy. We are experienced in war and we are trustworthy in combat. We hope that Allâh will show you through our hands those deeds of valour which will please your eyes. Kindly lead us to the battlefield in the Name of Allâh.”
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was impressed with the fidelity and the spirit of sacrifice which his companions showed at this critical juncture. Then he said to them: “Forward and be of cheer, for Allâh has promised me one of the two (the lucrative course through capturing the booty or strife in the cause of Allâh against the polytheists), and by Allâh it is as if I now saw the enemy lying prostrate.”
He commited himself to Islam at the age of 31. He is known to be a handsome, gallant, tall man with a radiant face.
The role of Sa’ad ibn Mu’adh during the Battle of Khandaq
Excerpt from the Sealed Nectar
During the process of fighting (Battle of Khandaq), Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh was shot by an arrow that pierced his artery. Perceiving his end approaching, he invoked Allâh saying: “Oh, Allâh, you know nothing is closer to my heart than striving in Your way against those people (disbelievers) who belied Your Messenger and banished him from his town. Oh, Allâh, I deeply believe that You have decreed that we should fight them, so if there is still more fighting to go with them, let me stay alive in order to strive more against them. If it has settled down, I beseech you to ignite it again so that I breathe my last in its context.”He concluded his supplication beseeching Allâh not to let him die until he had had full revenge on Banu Quraiza. In the midst of these difficult circumstances, plottery and intrigues were in fervent action against the Muslims. The chief criminal of Bani Nadir, Huyai, headed for the habitations of Banu Quraiza to incite their chief Ka‘b bin Asad Al-Qurazi, who had drawn a pact with the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to run to his aid in times of war. Ka‘b, in the beginning resisted all Huyai’s temptation, but Huyai was clever enough to manipulate him, speaking of Quraish and their notables in Al-Asyal, as well as Ghatfan and their chieftains entrenched in Uhud, all in one mind, determined to exterminate Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his followers. He, moreover, promised to stay in Ka‘b’s fort exposing himself to any potential danger in case Quraish and Ghatfan recanted. The wicked man went on in this manner until he later managed to win Ka‘b to his side and persuade him to break his covenant with the Muslims. Banu Quraiza then started to launch war operations against the Muslims especially the secluded garrisons that housed the women and children of the Muslims. On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, Safiyah (May Allah be pleased with her) daughter of ‘Abdul Muttalib happened to be in a garrison with Hassan bin Thabit as well as some women and children. Safiyah said: “A Jew was spotted lurking around our site, which was vulnerable to any enemy attacks because there were no men to defend it. I informed Hassan that I was suspicious of that man’s presence near us. He might take us by surprise now that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) and the Muslims are too busy to come to our aid, why don’t you get down and kill him? Hassan answered that he would not do it, so I took a bar of wood, went down and struck the Jew to death. I returned and asked Hassan to loot him but again Hassan refused to do that. This event had a far reaching effect and discouraged the Jews from conducting further attacks thinking that those sites were fortified and protected by Muslim fighters. They, however, went on providing the idolaters with supplies in token of their support against the Muslims.
On hearing this bad news, the Messenger (Peace be upon him) despatched four Muslim prominent leaders Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, Sa‘d bin ‘Ubada, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha and Khawat bin Jubair for investigation but warning against any sort of spreading panic amongst the Muslims and advising that they should declare in public that the rumours are groundless if they happen to be so. Unfortunately the four men discovered that the news was true and that the Jews announced openly that no pact of alliance existed any longer with Muhammad (Peace be upon him). The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was briefed on this situation, and the Muslims understood their critical position with the horrible danger implied therein. Their back was vulnerable to the attacks of Banu Quraiza, and a huge army with no way to connive at in front, while their women and children unprotected standing in between. In this regard, Allâh says:
“And when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allâh. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.”
Now that the Muslims were shut in within the Trench on the defensive, the hypocrites taunted them with having indulged in delusive hopes of defeating Kisra, emperor of Persia, and Caesar, emperor of the Romans. They began to sow the seeds of defeatism, and pretended to withdraw for the defence of their homes, though these were in no way exposed to danger. Here, Allâh says:
“And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said, ‘Allâh and His Messenger (Peace be upon him) promised us nothing but delusions!’ And when a party of them said: ‘O people of Yathrib (Al-Madinah), there is no stand (possible) for you (against the enemy attack!) therefore go back!’ And a band of them asked for permission of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) saying: ‘Truly, our homes lie open (to the enemy).’ And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.” [33:12, 13]
The Messenger of Allâh, (Peace be upon him) wrapped himself in his robe and began to meditate on the perfidy of Banu Quraiza. The spirit of hopefulness prevailed over him and he rose to his feet saying:
“Allâh is Great. Hearken you Muslims, to Allâh’s good tidings of victory and support.”
He then started to lay decisive plans aiming at protecting the women and children, and sent some fighters back to Madinah to guard them against any surprise assault by the enemy. The second step was to take action that could lead to undermining the ranks of the disbelieving confederates. There, he had in mind to conclude a sort of reconciliation with the chiefs of Ghatfan on the basis of donating them a third of Madinah’s fruit crops. He sought the advice of his chief Companions, namely, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah, whose reply went as follows:
“O Messenger of Allâh! If it is Allâh’s injunction, then we have to obey, but if it is a new course you want to follow just to provide security for us then we don’t need it. We experienced those people in polytheism and idolatry and we can safely say that they don’t need the fruit of our orchards, they rather need to exterminate us completely. Now that Allâh has honoured us with Islam, I believe the best recourse in this situation is to put them to the sword.” Thereupon the Prophet (Peace be upon him) corrected their Belief saying: “My new policy is being forged to provide your security after all the Arabs have united to annihilate you (Muslims).”
Sa’ad ibn Mu’adh ruling the Banu Quraizah
In the light of this reluctance, they had nothing except to comply with the Messenger’s judgement. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) ordered that the men should handcuffed, and this was done under the supervision of Muhammad bin Salamah Al-Ansari while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to be lenient towards them. He suggested that Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.
Sa‘d meanwhile stayed behind in Madinah due to a serious wound he sustained in the Confederates Battle. He was summoned and brought on a donkey. On his way to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) , the Jews used to exhort him to be lenient in his judgement on account of former friendship. Sa‘d remained silent but when they persisted he uttered: “It is time for Sa‘d not to be afraid of the blame of the blamers.” On hearing this decisive attitude, some of them returned to Madinah waiting fa desperate doom.
On arrival, he alighted with the help of some men. He was informed that the Jews had agreed to accept his verdict about them. He immediately wondered if his judgement would pass on all the people present, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) included, turning his face away in honour of him. The reply was positive.
He decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) accepted his judgement saying that Sa‘d had adjudged by the Command of Allâh. In fact, the Jews deserved that severe punitive action for the ugly treachery they had harboured against Islam, and the large arsenal they have amassed and which consisted of one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armours and five hundred shields, all of which went into the hands of the Muslims. Trenches were dug in the bazaar of Madinah and a number of Jews between six and seven hundred were beheaded therein. Hot beds of intrigue and treachery were thus exterminated once and for all.
Huyai, a chief criminal of war, a devil of Bani Nadir and Safiyah’s father, had joined the ranks of Banu Quraiza when Quraish and Ghatfan defected, was admitted into the audience of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with his hands tied to his neck with a rope. In audacious defiance, he declared obstinate enmity to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) but admitted that Allâh’s Will was to be fulfilled and added that he was resigned to his fate. He was ordered to sit down, and was beheaded on the spot.
Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islam and their lives, wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) divided them, after putting a fifth aside, in accordance with Allâh’s injunctions. Three shares went to the horseman and one to the infantry fighter. Women captives were sent to Najd to be bartered with horses and weaponry. For himself, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) selected Rehana bint ‘Amr bin Khanaqah, manumitted and married her in the year 6 Hijri. She died shortly after the farewell pilgrimage and was buried in Al-Baqi‘.
After the war with Banu Quraiza had been settled and they had been defeated, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh’s wish was gratified and he gave his last breath. In response to his supplication ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) narrated, Sa‘d’s wounds began to bleed from the front part of his neck while he was in his tent which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had pitched for him in the mosque so that he would be in close proximity in order to inquire about and watch his well-being closely. The people were not scared except when the blood flowed towards them, and in the Mosque along with Sa‘d’s tent, there was the tent of Banu Ghifar. They said: O people of the tent, what is it that is coming to us from you? Lo! it was Sa‘d’s wound that was bleeding and he died thereon.
The Throne of Allah Shook upon the Death of Sa’ad ibn Mu’adh
Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had said: “The Throne of the Compassionate shook for the death of Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh. ” When his bier was carried, At-Tirmidhi said: The hypocrites alleged it was too light. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) retorted:
“The angels are carrying him.”
Narrated Jabir: I heard the Prophet (salallahu alaihi wasallam) saying, “The Throne (of Allah) shook at the death of Saad ibn Muadh.” Through another group of narrators, Jabir added, “I heard the Prophet : saying, ‘The Throne of the Beneficent (Ar-Rahman) shook because of the death of Saad ibn Muadh.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Volume No. 5, Hadeeth No. 147]
[According to the Darussalam commentary, “The Throne shook” means that it shook in the delight of his welcome.]
Ibn Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu alaihi wasalam) said: “This (i.e. Saad ibn Muadh) is the one at whose death the Throne shook, the gates of heaven were opened for him and seventy thousand angels attended his funeral. It squeezed* him once then released him.” [Sunan An-Nasai, Hadeeth No. 2057. Graded ‘saheeh’ by Shaikh Al-Albani in Saheeh Sunan An-Nasai, Hadeeth No. 2055]
[*This refers to the squeezing of the grave.]
And that’s not all….
Al-Baraa reported that a garment of silk was presented to Allah’s Messenger (salallahu alaihi wasallam). His Companions touched it and admired its softness; thereupon he said: “Do you admire the softness of this (cloth)? The handkerchiefs of Saad ibn Muadh in Paradise are better than this.” [Saheeh Muslim, Hadeeth No. 6036]
1. those who disbelieve from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and among Al-Mushrikûn, were not going to leave (their disbelief) until there came to them clear evidence.
2. a Messenger (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) from Allâh, reciting (the Qur’ân) purified Pages [purified from Al-Bâtil (falsehood, etc.)].
3. containing correct and Straight laws from Allâh.
4. and the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) differed not until after there came to them clear evidence. (i.e. Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam) and whatever was revealed to Him).
5. and they were commanded not, but that they should Worship Allâh, and Worship none but Him alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to him), and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give Zakât: and that is the Right religion.
6. Verily, those who disbelieve (in the Religion of Islâm, the Qur’ân and Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and Al-Mushrikûn will abide In the Fire of Hell. they are the worst of creatures.
7. Verily, those who believe [in the Oneness of Allâh, and In his Messenger Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) including All obligations ordered by Islâm] and do righteous good deeds, they are the best of creatures.
8. their reward with their Lord is ‘Adn (Eden) Paradise (Gardens of Eternity), underneath which rivers flow, they will abide therein forever, Allâh well-pleased with them, and they with Him. that is for Him who fears his Lord.
Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah said to Ubayy bin Ka`b,
إِنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَقْرَأَ عَلَيْكَ
لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ
Verily, Allah has commanded me to recite to you (Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture.)) Ubayy said, “He (Allah) mentioned me by name to you”
The Prophet replied,
Yes. So he (Ubayy) cried. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i all recorded this Hadith from Shu`bah. (Al Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi)
4.1. Ubayy bin Ka’ab
Abu Mundhir! Which verse of the Book of Allah (swt) is the greatest?” asked the Messenger of Allah (saw).
“Allah and His Messenger know best,” came the reply. The Prophet (saw) repeated the question and Abu Mundhir in response recited the Ayat al-Kursi or the Verse of the Throne:
“Allah, there is no god but He, the Living, the Self-Subsisting. Neither slumber overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth…” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:255)
The Prophet (saw) smote his chest with his right hand in approval on hearing the reply and with his countenance beaming with happiness, said to Abu Mundhir (ra):
“May knowledge delight and benefit you, Abu Mundhir.”
This Abu Mundhir whom the Prophet (saw) congratulated on the knowledge and understanding that Allah (swt) had bestowed on him, was Ubayy ibn Ka’b, one of his distinguished companions and a person of high esteem in the early Muslim community.
Ubayy (ra) was one of the Ansar and belonged to the Khazraj tribe. He was one of the first persons of Yathrib to accept Islam. He pledged allegiance to the Prophet (saw) at al-‘Aqabah before the Hijrah. He participated in the Battle of Badr and other engagements thereafter.
Ubayy (ra) was one of the select few who committed the Qur’anic revelations to writing and had a Mus-haf of his own. He acted as a scribe of the Prophet (saw), writing letters for him. At the demise of the Prophet (saw), he was one of the twenty-five or so people who knew the Qur’an completely by heart. His recitation was so beautiful and his understanding so profound that the Prophet (saw) encouraged his companions to learn the Qur’an from him and from three others. Later, ‘Umar (ra) too once told the Muslims as he was dealing with some financial matters of state:
“O people! Whoever wants to ask about the Qur’an, let him go to Ubayy ibn Ka’b (ra)…” (‘Umar went on to say that anyone wishing to ask about inheritance matters should go to Zayd ibn Thabit, about questions of fiqh to Mu’adh ibn Jabal and about questions of money and finance, to himself – ra)
Ubayy (ra) enjoyed a special honor with regard to the Qur’an. One day, the Prophet (saw) said:
“O Ubayy ibn Ka’b! I have been commanded to show or lay open the Qur’an to you.”
Ubayy (ra) was elated. He knew of course that the Prophet (saw) only received commands from on high. Unable to control his excitement, he asked:
“O Messenger of Allah… Have I been mentioned to you by name?”
“Yes,” replied the Prophet (saw), “by your own name and by your genealogy (nasab) in the highest heavens.”
Any Muslim whose name had been conveyed to the heart of the Prophet (saw) in this manner must certainly have been of great ability and of a tremendously high stature.
Throughout the years of his association with the Prophet (saw), Ubayy (ra) derived the maximum benefit from his sweet and noble personality and from his noble teachings. Ubayy (ra) related that the Prophet (saw) once asked him:
“Shall I not teach you a Surah the like of which has not been revealed in the Tawrah, nor in the Injil, nor in the Zabur, nor in the Qur’an?”
“Certainly,” replied Ubayy (ra).
“I hope you would not leave through that door until you know what it is,” said the Prophet (saw), obviously prolonging the suspense for Ubayy (ra). Ubayy continues:
“He stood up and I stood up with him. With my hand in his, he started to speak. I tried to delay him fearing that he would leave before letting me know what the Surah is. When he reached the door, I asked:
‘O Messenger of Allah! The Surah which you promised to tell me…’
‘What do you recite when you stand for Salat?’ So, I recited for him Surah Fatihah and he said:
‘(That’s) it! (That’s) it! They are the seven oft-repeated verses of which Allah Almighty has said: We have given you the seven oft-repeated verses and the Mighty Qur’an.'”
Ubayy’s devotion to the Qur’an was uncompromising. Once he recited part of a verse that the Khalifah ‘Umar (ra) apparently could not remember or did not know and he said to Ubayy (ra):
“You have lied,” to which Ubayy (ra) retorted:
“Rather, you have lied.”
A person who heard the exchange was astounded and said to Ubayy (ra):
“Do you call the Amir al-Mu’minin a liar?”
“I have greater honor and respect for the Amir al-Mu’minin than you,” responded Ubayy (ra), “but he has erred in verifying the Book of Allah and I shall not say the Amir al-Mu’minin is correct when he has made an error concerning the Book of Allah.”
“Ubayy is right,” concluded ‘Umar (ra).
Ubayy (ra) gave an idea of the importance of the Qur’an when a man came to him and said, “Advise me,” and he replied:
“Take the Book of Allah as (your) leader (imam). Be satisfied with it as (your) judge and ruler. It is what the Prophet has bequeathed to you. (It is your) intercessor with Allah (swt) and should be obeyed…”
After the demise of the Prophet (saw), Ubayy (ra) remained strong in his attachment to Islam and his commitment to the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). He was constant in his ‘ibadah and would often be found in the mosque at night, after the last obligatory prayer had been performed, engaged in worship or in teaching. Once he was sitting in the mosque after Salat with a group of Muslims, making supplication to Allah (swt). ‘Umar (ra) came in and sat with them and asked each one to recite a du’a’. They all did until finally Ubayy’s turn came. He was sitting next to ‘Umar (ra) and felt somewhat over-awed and became flustered. ‘Umar (ra) prompted him and suggested that he say:
“Allahumma ighfir lana. Allahumma irhamna. O Lord, forgive us; O Lord, have mercy on us.”
Taqwa remained the guiding force in Ubayy’s life. He lived simply and did not allow the world to corrupt or deceive him. He had a good grasp of reality and knew that however a person lived and whatever comforts and luxuries he enjoyed, these would all fade away and he would have only his good deeds to his credit. He was always a sort of a warner to Muslims, reminding them of the times of the Prophet (saw), of the Muslims’ devotion to Islam then, of their simplicity and spirit of sacrifice. Many people came to him seeking knowledge and advice. To one such person he said:
“The believer has four characteristics. If he is afflicted by any misfortune, he remains patient and steadfast. If he is given anything, he is grateful. If he speaks, he speaks the truth. If he passes a judgment on any issue, he is just.”
Ubayy (ra) attained a position of great honor and esteem among the early Muslims. ‘Umar (ra) called him the “sayyid of the Muslims” and he came to be widely known by this title. He was part of the consultative group (mushawarah) to which Abu Bakr, as Khalifah, referred many problems. This group was composed of men of good sense and judgment (ahl ar-ra’y) and men who knew the law (ahl al-fiqh) from among the Muhajirin and Ansar. It included ‘Umar, ‘Uthman ‘Ali, ‘Abdur-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Ubayy ibn Ka’b and Zayd ibn Harithah (ra). ‘Umar (ra) later consulted the same group when he was Khalifah. Specifically for fatwas (legal judgments) he referred to ‘Uthman, Ubayy and Zayd ibn Thabit (ra).
Because of Ubayy’s high standing, one might have expected him to be given positions of administrative responsibility, for example as a governor, in the rapidly expanding Muslim State. (During the time of the Prophet (saw), in fact, he had performed the function of a collector of sadaqah) Indeed, Ubayy (ra) once asked:
“What’s the matter with you? Why don’t you appoint me as a governor?”
“I do not want your religion to be corrupted,” replied ‘Umar (ra).
Ubayy (ra) was probably prompted to put the question to ‘Umar (ra) when he saw that Muslims were tending to drift from the purity of faith and self-sacrifice of the days of the Prophet (saw). He was known to be especially critical of the excessively polite and sycophantic attitude of many Muslims to their governors who he felt brought ruin both to the governors and those under them. Ubayy (ra) for his part was always honest and frank in his dealings with persons in authority and feared no one but Allah (swt). He acted as a sort of conscience to the Muslims.
One of Ubayy’s major fears for the Muslim ummah was that a day would come when there would be severe strife among Muslims. He often became overwhelmed with emotion when he read or heard the verse of the Qur’an:
Surah al An’am 6: 65. say: “He has power to send torment on You from above or from under Your feet, or to cover You with confusion In party strife, and make You to taste the violence of one another.” see How variously we explain the Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), so that they may understand.
He would then pray fervently to Allah (swt) for guidance and ask for His clemency and forgiveness.
Ubayy (ra) died in the year 29 AH during the Khalifah of ‘Uthman (ra).
Imagine being the one mentioned by Allah by name. Subhanallah. Wouldn’t that be wonderful?
Remember we learned about this when we learn about Angels and the Believers?
This is the continuation on our study of Suratul Humazah. We covered it HERE.
We covered short seerahs on wealthy sahabah such to give examples to the children of the wealthy sahabah, who are infact the best of the best, among the ten promised jannah, May Allah have mercy on them. One can have wealth but not be among those described in Suratul Humazah. What kind of characters do they have that Allah has put favour on them?
Abu Bakr with the wealth he had, also had a major role in freeing some of the Muslim slaves, who were barbarically tortured by their heartless Mushrik masters to give up the Faith and return to their masters’ beliefs. The heartless monsters tried all kinds of torture: they made them lie all naked on the burning desert sand, putting big stones on their chest, as well as other kinds of torture. Here Abu Bakr’s wealth came to the rescue, as he bought the poor helpless slaves from their inhuman masters and set them free, Bilal Al-Habashi, the slave of Umayya bin Khalaf, was among those who were set free by Abu Bakr. Bilal became afterwards the Mu’azzin at the Prophet’s mosque.
Tabuk was the last expedition of the Holy Prophet. He was keen to make it a great success, he therefore asked people to help the expedition with whatever they could. This brought the best out of Abu Bakr who beat all records as he took all his money and household articles and heaped them at the Prophet’s feet.
“Have you left anything for your children?” asked the Prophet. Abu Bakr then responded with great faith “Allâh and his Messenger are enough for them”. Companions standing around were stunned they realized that whatever they do they could not outdo Abu Bakr in the field of service to Islâm.
We did a lapbook on Abu Bakr As Siddiq. You may find it HERE, Insya ALlah.
This is the continuation on our study of Suratul Humazah. We covered it HERE.
We covered short seerahs on wealthy sahabah such to give examples to the children of the wealthy sahabah, who are infact the best of the best, among the ten promised jannah, May Allah have mercy on them. One can have wealth but not be among those described in Suratul Humazah. What kind of characters do they have that Allah has put favour on them?
“O Allah, Be pleased with Uthman for I am pleased with him.” The Prophet (Salla-Llaahu ‘alayhi wa-sallam)
During the reign of the Caliph ‘Umar (radiy-Allaahu ‘anhu) in the year known as ‘the year of Ramaadah”, when the people at Madina suffered a severe draught, to the extent that they resorted to eating tree leaves out of starvation, news came that ‘Uthman (radiy-Allaahu ‘anhu) was expecting a caravan of 1000 camels loaded with food supplies. The merchants of the Madina rushed to him to buy those loads of food to make money out of them. Our hero asked them how much they would pay him. They offerend double and triple the price of those camel loads, and kept raising their offers. What was ‘Uthman’s answer tot hem? He replied, “I have been offered more by Allah Who has promised ten to seven hundred folds.” (See Qur’an, Chapter 2, verse 261) He gave the whole 1000 camel caravan load in charity to the needy people of the city.
In the year 9 of Hijra (circa 630 G), the Prophet Muhammed (salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa-sallam) decided to launch an attack against the Arab vassals of the Roman Empire, as a deterrent to the Romans who were reported to have been preparing to wage war against the Muslims. It was summer, and the affairs of the Muslims were not going well. Many a believer wanted to join the army, but was prevented by poverty and scarcity of means. To save the day our hero, ‘Uthman (radiy-Allaahu ‘anhu) gave 10,000 gold dinars, three hundred fully equipped camels, and fifty horses for this Battle of Tabuk. Besides, he supplied three hundred of the learned companions of the Prophet (salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa-sallam) with full provisions to accompany the army. The Prophet’s reaction was, “Nothing will hurt ‘Uthman after this day.” The Prophet then prayed, “O Allah, be pleased with ‘Uthman, for I am pleased with him.”
In Medina, water was scarce and control of the wells was tightly held by several men. Because he was a skilful trader and negotiator, Uthman set about trying to procure a well for the use of the Muslims. He negotiated a price for half a well; he would have control one day and the other owner the next day. However, Uthman gave his water to the Muslims freely, so nobody wanted to pay for the water on the alternate days. The original owner of the well had no choice but to sell his half of the well to Uthman who nevertheless paid a fair price for it. Uthman continued to allow the water to be used freely by all and never reminded the people of his charity. He was humble and modest.
Uthman gave freely from his wealth to please God and His messenger Muhammad.
For this session we will try to bring examples of the sahaba who are known for their wealth. The main objective is to show them the examples on how the wealthy sahaba spent their wealth. The sahaba are the best based on what prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam said
Allah’s most beloved Messenger, Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam), told us: “The best of my followers are those living in my century (generation), then those coming after them and then those coming after the latter.” [Bukhari]
Therefore, the people to love the most and look up to, after Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam), are his Sahabah (radi Allahu anhum).
Most importantly we want to gather lessons and examplary actions so that we can emulate their behaviour so that we can please Allah. May Allah be please with us as He has been pleased with them.
I used this book to narrate the story to the children – Heroes of Islam by Prof Mahmoud Esma’il Sieny, published by Darussalam.
First of all imagine in the early years when Prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam made a call to Islam. Usually among the early ones to embrace Islam are the poor and the one with no position in the community because they have nothing to lose and they all look forward to greater reward that Allah promised to the believers.
The rich however have more to fear of losing. Fear of losing wealth and status and to face hardship when responding to the truth. However that is not so for some sahaba. They were wealthy before Islam and even wealthier both in the world and even more in their eeman.
Abdur Rahman bin Auf
He is an example of the true follower of Islam whose wealth was a means to attain the pleasure of Allah rather than an end in itself.
Soon after arriving in Madinah, the Prophet in his unique manner began pairing off the Muhajirin and the Ansar. This established a firm bond of brotherhood and was meant to strengthen social cohesion and ease the destitution of the Muhajirin. Abdur-Rahman was linked by the Prophet with Sad ibn ar-Rabi’ah. Sad in the spirit of generosity and magnanimity with which the Ansar greeted the Muhajirin, said to Abdur-Rahman:
“My brother! Among the people of Madinah I have the most wealth. I have two orchards and I have two wives. See which of the two orchards you like and I shall vacate it for you and which of my two wives is pleasing to you and I will divorce her for you.”
Abdur-Rahman must have been embarrassed and said in reply: “May God bless you in your family and your wealth. But just show me where the suq is..”
Abdur-Rahman went to the market-place and began trading with whatever little resources he had. He bought and sold and his profits grew rapidly. Soon he was sufficiently well off and was able to get married. He went to the noble Prophet with the scent of perfume lingering over him.
“Mahyarn, O Abdur-Rahman!” exclaimed the Prophet – “mahyam” being a word of Yemeni origin which indicates pleasant surprise.
“I have got married,” replied Abdur-Rahman. “And what did you give your wife as mahr?” “The weight of a nuwat in gold.”
“You must have a walimah (wedding feast) even if it is with a single sheep. And may Allah bless you in your wealth,” said the Prophet with obvious pleasure and encouragement.
Once the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, was preparing to despatch an expeditionary force. He summoned his companions and said:
“Contribute sadaqah for I want to despatch an expedition.” Abdur-Rahman went to his house and quickly returned. “O Messenger of God,” he said, “I have four thousand (dinars). I give two thousand as a qard to my Lord and two thousand I leave for my family.”
When the Prophet decided to send an expedition to distant Tabuk – this was the last ghazwah of his life that he mounted – his need for finance and material was not greater than his need for men for the Byzantine forces were a numerous and well-equipped foe. That year in Madinah was one of drought and hardship. The journey to Tabuk was long, more that a thousand kilometers. Provisions were in short supply. Transport was at a premium so much so that a group of Muslims came to the Prophet pleading to go with him but he had to turn them away because he could find no transport for them.
These men were sad and dejected and came to be known as the Bakka’in or the Weepers and the army itself was called the Army of Hardship (‘Usrah). Thereupon the Prophet called upon his companions to give generously for the war effort in the path of God and assured them they would be rewarded. The Muslims’ response to the Prophet’s call was immediate and generous. In the fore front of those who responded was Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf. He donated two hundred awqiyyah of gold whereupon Umar ibn al-Khattab said to the Prophet:
“I have (now) seen Abdur-Rahman committing a wrong. He has not left anything for his family.”
“Have you left anything for your family, Abdur-Rahman?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes,” replied Abdur-Rahman. “I have left for them more than what I give and better.” “How much?” enquired the Prophet.
“What God and His Messenger have promised of sustenance, goodness and reward,” replied Abdur-Rahman.
When the Prophet, peace be on him, passed away, Abdur-Rahman took on the responsibility of looking after the needs of his family, the Ummahaat al-Muminin. He would go with them wherever they wanted to and he even performed Hajj with them to ensure that all their needs were met. This is a sign of the trust and confidence which he enjoyed on the part of the Prophet’s family.
Abdur-Rahman’s support for the Muslims and the Prophet’s wives in particular was well-known. Once he sold a piece of land for forty thousand dinars and he distributed the entire amount among the Banu Zahrah (the relatives of the Prophet’s mother Aminah), the poor among the Muslims and the Prophet’s wives. When Aishah, may God be pleased with her, received some of this money she asked:
“Who has sent this money?” and was told it was Abdur-Rahman, whereupon she said:
“The Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, said: No one will feel compassion towards you after I die except the sabirin (those who are patient and resolute).”
One day, a loud rumbling sound was heard coming from beyond the boundaries of Madinah normally a calm and peaceful city. The rumbling sound gradually increased in volume. In addition, clouds of dust and sand were stirred up and blown in the wind. The people of Madinah soon realized that a mighty caravan was entering the city. They stood in amazement as seven hundred camels laden with goods moved into the city and crowded the streets. There was much shouting and excitement as people called to one another to come out and witness the sight and see what goods and sustenance the camel caravan had brought.
Aishah, may God be pleased with her, heard the commotion and asked: “What is this that’s happening in Madinah?” and she was told: “It is the caravan of Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf which has come from Syria bearing his merchandise.” “A caravan making all this commotion?” she asked in disbelief.” “Yes, O Umm al-Muminin. There are seven hundred camels.”
Aishah shook her head and gazed in the distance as if she was trying to recall some scene or utterance of the past and then she said:
“I have heard the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, say: I have seen Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf entering Paradise creeping.”
Why creeping? Why should he not enter Paradise leaping and at a quick pace with the early companions of the Prophet?
Some friends of his related to Abdur-Rahman the hadith which Aishah had mentioned. He remembered that he had heard the hadith more than once from the Prophet and he hurried to the house of Aishah and said to her: “Yaa Ammah! Have you heard that from the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace?” “Yes,” she replied.
“You have reminded me of a hadith which I have never forgotten,” he is also reported to have said. He was so over-joyed and added:
“If I could I would certainly like to enter Paradise standing. I swear to you, yaa Ammah, that this entire caravan with all its merchandise, I will giver sabilillah.”
And so he did. In a great festival of charity and righteousness, he distributed all that the massive caravan had brought to the people of Madinah and surrounding areas.
This is just one incident which showed what type of man Abdur-Rahman was. He earned much wealth but he never remained attached to it for its own sake and he did not allow it to corrupt him.
An interesting article about Al Rahji. May Allah accept his deeds and preserve him.