Category Archives: Al Quran

At Tin 95: 7-8

فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعۡدُ بِٱلدِّينِ

7. Then what (or who) causes You (O disbelievers) to deny the Recompense (i.e. Day of Resurrection)?

In this context, ad Din means the Recompense or The Day of Resurrection. This will be the day of recompense for every little thing that you did, good or bad.

After Allah tells us that He created us with the best of stature, He tells us that some of us will not value that we are better off than many of Allah’s creation. Many of use used our faculties for haram and thus will be brought to the lowest of the low which is the jahannam.

Upon realization that we are better off than other creations, we should realize that surely we have ah higher purpose than the rest of the creation. Or life purpose shold not be merely waking up from sleep, eat, find wealth, have family and children. These are the same as to animals. They too sleep, eat, find food (which is their wealth), procreate and have children to ensure the continuity of the species.

Those who reject the truth, will always deny that will be the day that all that we do now will be rewarded or punished accordingly. Thus Allah asks the disbelievers, after knowing, why do the believers still deny the truth?

أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَحۡكَمِ ٱلۡحَـٰكِمِينَ

8. is not Allâh the best of judges?

This verse is a question that Allah asks to those who denies the Day Of Recompense. How can they deny that Allah is indeed the best of judges.

10. SUMMARY (Notes of Nouman Ali Khan’s tafseer lessons)

Allah begins the surah by mentioning the Legacies of the Great Messengers’ (‘Uluw al ‘azam – the most perseverant from all the Messengers’) with the best characteristics from humanity. The Messengers’ mentioned in the beginning of the surah are the best examples for humanity, and Allah taught them wisdom and judgment as examples for humanity.

Then Allah discusses in the centre of the surah that He has made insan (man/humans) in the best perfect form.

Then the worst of the worst are mentioned (ayah 5) – those who rejected the best of the Messengers.

Then those who followed the best Messengers’ are described after that (ayah 6) – those who believe and do good deeds.

Then finally; now that you have understood this basic message – what is preventing you from following the guidance? (ayah 7) Isn’t Allah the Best of Judges / Wise Ones to give the commands – which you should be following? (ayah 8).

We are more than just animals. We don’t just want to fill our bellies and desires. We want to purify ourselves on the inside and the outside.

This surah is based on balance. We need to realise that Allah has chosen us above animals by giving us an intellect (‘aql), and through that we understand we have higher morality. Once we understand this – we need to believe internally, and show that good through our actions by following the best Messengers’ [the ‘Uluw al ‘Azam]. If we don’t, Allah will reject us, and make us the lowest of the low.

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At Tin 95: 4-6

 لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ فِىٓ أَحۡسَنِ تَقۡوِيمٍ۬ 

4. Verily, we created man of the best stature (mould),

As you have read, in the previous three ayahs, Allah made an oath. When Allah gives an Oath, He is going to give a response (jawab) as to what is related to the Oath. In these coming ayah, you can see what is the respond given by Allah after he made the oath.

In Ayah 4, Allah has declared that He has created the humankind to have the best stature. Mankind is created with the complete perfection, beautiful shape, right proportion and upright stature. Not only that, humankind is given aql to differentiate the good and evil, and use his intellect to progress.

ثُمَّ رَدَدۡنَـٰهُ أَسۡفَلَ سَـٰفِلِينَ

5. Then we reduced Him to the lowest of the low,

Some scholars has translated this to mean, that mankind will make themselves go slide into the lowest part of hell despite being given the best of stature, they have disobeyed Allah and the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasalam. Indeed they are the people who are at loss in this world as what Allah ahs mentioned in surah al Asr.

وَٱلۡعَصۡرِ (١) إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ لَفِى خُسۡرٍ (٢

1. by Al-‘Asr (the time).
2. Verily! man is In loss,

May Allah protect us from being among these people.

Brainstorm how can one get themselves to be at loss in this dunya.

Thus despite that Allah had given human the best form of especially intellect, some used it not for worshiping Him but rather to disobey Allah. Look at our form

Are we using all these faculties to please Allah?

 إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فَلَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونٍ۬

6. save those who believe (in Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds, Then they shall have a reward without end (Paradise).

عَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ 

Allah says many times in the Quran this phrase – Those who believe and do righteous deed.

Eemaan is something internal, in the heart. Only Allah knows the level of your eemaan.
Righteous deeds, even though one does not announce the deeds they have done, but it is manifested in their actions, what they wear, things they like to do.
One cannot claim to have eemaan but yet do not obey Allah externally. These two must come together.
And surely those who you can see be doing good deeds but do not have believe in the heart is considered a munafiq.
In this ayat, only those with eemaan AND doing righteous deeds will receive ajr (reward).

Reward that will never end.

Subhanallah! Imagine living in bliss of which there is no end.
Human craves to live forever and that is why they search for the fountain of youth, they fantasise of living forever (but yet remain young). This cannot be achieved in this world. Even if one can live for a long time, life has so much test and pain and our aging body will only leave us uncomfortable to live forever.

But this is not the case in jannah. Everything good you can think of, it will only better there. We ask Allah that he place us in the highest jannah.

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Surah at Tin 95: 1-3

By the fig, and the olive, (1) By Mount Sinai, (2) By this city of security (Makkah)[] , (3) Verily, We created man in the best stature (mould), (4) Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low, (5) Save those who believe (in Islâmic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds, Then they shall have a reward without end (Paradise). (6) Then what (or who) causes you (O disbelievers) to deny the Recompense (i.e. Day of Resurrection)? (7) Is not Allâh the Best of judges? (8)

1. Ayah 1-3

1. by the fig, and the olive,
2. by Mount Sinai,
3. and by This city of security

Allah begins this surah with an oath. The letter  is is called wau al Qassim meaning the wau for making an oath. As we have learned previously, when Allah makes an oath on one of His creations, it shows the importance of that creation and also what follows after the oath.

Can you name where did Allah make oaths in other surah?

Let’s look at what Allah swears on in this surah.

This is the fruit tin or english is called fig. We usually buy the dried ones

Thia is zaitun or in english is called olive. You usually find it on pizza and salad.

Tur Sinin.
This is Mount Sinai, a very historical location to the three religions which are Judaism, Christian and Islam. It is located in the Peninsula Sinai, in between Egypt and occupied Philistine.

Baladil Amin. A city of security.

Some of the scholars have interpreted that all these are pointing out to places. Important places, which Allah has spread the religion from or rather where Allah has brought His Messengers to.

وَٱلتِّينِ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونِ
Tin and zaitun are among the trees that are widely grown in the Shams area. Shams areas consist of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Philistine. Some of the scholars say this really refer to Jurusalem in Philistine where Prophet Isa alaihi salam was sent to. Can you circle Jurusaem in the map above?

وَطُورِ سِينِينَ
Mount Sinai is the mountain where Allah talks directly to prophet Musa alaihi salam. Can you circle Mount Sinai in the map?

 وَهَـٰذَا ٱلۡبَلَدِ ٱلۡأَمِينِ

Many scholars also have described this as Makkah itself for it was the safest place to be and it is the city of security where whoever enters is safe. It is also the city in which Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam received his revelation.

Can you circle Makkah in the map?

Some of the Imams have said that these are three different places, and that Allah sent a Messenger to each of them from the Leading Messengers, who delivered the Great Codes of Law. This is why He swore by a noble place, then by a nobler place, and then by a place that is the nobler than both of them.

Allah knows best.

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Al Alaq 96: 17-19 ABu Jahl’s Companions

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers),
18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!
19. Nay! (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam))! do not obey Him (Abû Jahl). fall prostrate and draw near to Allâh!

Abu Jahl’s Associates

Allah further challenges Abu Jahl to call his helpers. Abu Jahl is one of the leaders of the Quraysh and his tops associates were also among the leaders of Quraysh.

Among them are
i. Utbah ibn Rabi’ah

ʿUtba b. Rabīʿah bin ʿAbd Shams is one of the chiefs of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, who refused to follow Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam . He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind was the wife of Abū Sufyān, and she avenged herself at Uhud on her father’s killer Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib.

Shocked by the number of adherents of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam, ʿUtba, having consulted the other chiefs of the Quraysh, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda.

Undaunted by any harm or injury that befell them, their faith unshaken, the Muslims kept on increasing in numbers and strength. They proclaimed their faith loudly and performed their prayers publicly all to the alarm of quraysh, who were at a loss what to do next. For a moment they thought that they could get rid of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam by satisfying what they took to be his personal ambitions. Obviously they forgot the greatness of the islamic call, the purity of its spiritual essence, and its noble transcendence of any political partisanship. `Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, one of the distinguished leaders of arabia, convinced the quraysh at one of their community meetings to delegate him to approach Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam with a number of alternative offerings of which, he thought, Muhammad would surely accept one. He therefore went to Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and said, “o nephew, you certainly enjoy among us great eminence and noble lineage, and you have brought about a great issue and divided your people. Listen to me for I am about to make several offers to you, certain as I am that one of them will prove satisfactory to you. If by bringing about the conflict you did, you have sought to achieve some wealth, know that we are prepared to give you of our wealth until you become the richest man among us. If, on the other hand, you desired honor and power, we would make you our chief and endow you with such power that nothing could be done without your consent. Even if you wanted to be a king, we should not hesitate to crown you king over us. finally, if you are unable to cure yourself of the visions that you have been seeing, we shall be happy to seek for you at our expense all the medical service possible until your health is perfectly restored.” when he finished, Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam recited to him, the surah “al sajdah.” [qur’an, 32].

`Utbah listened attentively to the divine recitation. Facing him was a man devoid of all ambition for wealth, prestige, honor, power, or sovereignty. Neither was he sick. Facing him was indeed a man telling the truth, calling to the good, answering him with arguments yet more soundly and sublimely expressed than any he had ever heard. When Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam finished, `Utbah returned to quraysh spellbound by the beauty and sublimity of what he had seen and heard and by the greatness of this man and his eloquence. The quraysh were obviously not happy with this turn, nor did they agree with `Utbah’s opinion that they should leave Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam for all the arabs together to deal with; they would thereby reap a harvest of pride in the event that Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam wins, or enjoy an effortless victory in the event he loses, in fact, quraysh resumed their attacks upon Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and his followers, intensified their aggression, and inflicted upon his companions all sorts of injuries from which Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam was saved only through the protection of Abu Talib, banu hashim, and banu al muttalib.


ii. Shaibah ibn Rabiah

Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah (Arabic: شيبة بن ربيعة) was the brother of Utbah ibn Rabi’ah belonging to the clan of Banu Abd Shams (parent clan of Banu Umayyah) from the tribe of Quraysh of Mecca. He was also a champion of the Meccan army sent along with his brother Utbah and his nephew Walid ibn Utbah in the Battle of Badr in around 624 AD (2 A.H.). In a three against three matches before the actual battle began, he was killed by Ali ibn Abi Talib who was the cousin and sahaba of the Prophet Muhammad.

iii. Walid ibn Utbah

Walid ibn Utbah (died 624) was the son of Utba ibn Rabi’ah and brother of Hind bint Utbah (Wife of Abu Sufyan) of the Quraysh tribe in the region of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

He was a fierce Meccan warrior who was killed by Ali (Ali ibn Abi Taleb) in the traditional 3 champions’ combat duel on the day of the Battle of Badr before the full battle began. Walid, his father and uncle were the three champions of the Meccan army in duel against Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Ali, and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In the combat duel, Walid’s father (Utbah bin Rabiah) was killed by Hamza. And after his uncle first wounded Ubaidah with his dagger after his sword was hit away by Ubaidah, Then Hamza and Ali had killed him.

iv. Umayah ibn Khalaf
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of the of Bani Jumah. He is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Ribah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam.

Umayyah was involved in the pagan religious ceremonies of Mecca, where he distributed perfume in the square of the Kaaba. After Muhammad began to preach against idolatry, Umayyah became a staunch opponent of the new teaching.

He also known for his action, that he subjected his slave Bilal ibn Ribah to torture for having adopted Islam. Bilal was made to lie down on hot burning desert sand and had a heavy stone put on his chest which made breathing difficult for him. Since he still refused to denounce Islam, a heavy person was to jump on the stone. Bilal used to repeat “Ahad! Ahad! (One God! One God!).

Ummayah had a close friend named Abdul Rahman ibn Awf, but their friendship was strained when Abdu Amr converted to Islam. Abdu Amr changed his name to Abd al-Rahman and later emigrated to Medina. Because of their friendship, the two formed a written agreement, according to which Abdul Rahman was to protect Umayah’s property and/or family in Medina, while Umayyah would protect Abd-al-Rahman’s in Mecca. When Abd al-Rahman’s name was mentioned in the document, Umayyah protested, saying “I do not know Ar-Rahman” and requested that the pre-Islamic name “Abdu Amr” should be used, to which Abd al-Rahman yielded.

Umayyah was also an intimate friend with Sa’d ibn Mua’dh, the leader of the Banu Aus. When Umayyah was in Medina on his way to Syria, he used to stay with Sa’d and when Sa’d was in Mecca, he used to stay with Umayah.

Prior to the Battle of Badr, Sa’d visited Mecca once to perform his Umrah with Umayyah, when they came across Abu Jahl. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa’d threatened Abu Jahl with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and informed Umayyah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.

Battle of Badr

In 624 CE, the Meccans decided to confront the Muslim forces that threatened a caravan from Syria led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Abu Jahl was rallying the people for war, saying “Go and protect your caravan.”

Umayyah however, anxious about Sa’d’s warning, disliked to leave Mecca, but Abu Jahl told him “O Abu Safwan! If the people see you staying behind though you are the chief of the people of the Valley, then they will remain behind with you.”

Abu Jahl urged until Umayyah said “As you have forced me to change my mind, I will buy the best camel in Mecca”. Umayyah told his wife “O Um Safwan, prepare what I need.” She said to him, “O Abu Safwan! Have you forgotten what your Yathribi brother told you?” He said, “No, but I do not want to go with them but for a short distance.” So when Umaiya went out, he used to tie his camel wherever he camped.

In the battle, Umayyah was captured by his old friend Abdul Rahman ibn Awf. He was killed by a group of Muslims led by his former slave Bilal (who was a victim of his earlier torture), in spite of Abdul Rahman’s protestations and his attempt to shield Umayyah with his own body. One of Umayyah’s sons was also killed at Badr, defending his father.

v. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب‎), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (1 September 560 – 1 August 652), was the leader of the Quraish tribe of Mecca. He was a staunch opponent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad before accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim warrior later in his life.

Opposition to Islam
Abu Sufyan was the chieftain of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, which made him one of the most powerful in Mecca. Abu Sufyan viewed Muhammad as politically ambitious, a threat to Mecca’s social order, and a blasphemer of the Quraish gods.

After Muhammed and other Muslims had migrated to Medina in 622, the Quraish confiscated the belongings they had left behind. During that period of time, caravans were accompanied by military escorts of varying strength.

Due to the hospitality Muhammad received in Medina, the Meccans feared the growing influence of the Muslims and thus were contriving to safeguard their trade routes by eliminating the religion of Islam. The Muslims of Medina were aware of such activities and began to make preparations for self-defense.

In 624, Abu Sufyan was the appointed leader of a large merchant caravan carrying a fortune of the Quraysh’s goods to Syria for trade. The caravan was escorted by a force of around 40 or 50 soldiers. Muhammad had learned that the caravan was passing close to Medina en route to Syria and organized a Muslim force of 300 men to intercept it and repossess the goods that the Quraysh had stolen from the Muslims due to their absence in Mecca. Around this time, it is related that God revealed to Muhammad that his people were now given permission to go after those who had oppressed them, driven them from their homes (in Mecca) and confiscated their property (some of which the Quraish put on this same caravan). However, the Muslim contingent Muhammad had assembled failed to intercept the caravan. They arrived after the caravan had already passed by Medina. Abu Sufyan had learned of the Muslims plan from scouts he had deployed, and in response, sent a crier to Mecca to rally the Quraish to arms against the Muslims. The Muslims ended up engaging this Meccan army, a force of around 1000 men, at the plains of Badr several days after they had failed to intercept the caravan. This conflict, the Battle of Badr, ultimately resulted in a Muslim victory. The death of most Quraish leaders in the battle not only left Abu Sufyan the leader of Mecca, but also marked the fulfillment of the Qur’anic prophecy in verse 30:3.

Abu Sufyan served as the military leader in the later Meccan campaigns against Medina, including the Battle of Uhud in 625 and the Battle of the Trench in 627, but he could not attain final victory.

Eventually the two parties agreed to an armistice, the Treaty of Hudaybiyya in 628, which allowed Muslims to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba.

When the armistice was violated in 630 by allies of the Quraish, Muhammad moved towards liberating Mecca from non-Muslim authority. Abu Sufyan, seeing that the balance had tilted in Muhammad’s favour and that the Quraish were not strong enough to hinder the Muslims from conquering the city, travelled to Madina, trying to restore the treaty. No agreement was reached between the two parties and Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca empty handed. These efforts ultimately ensured that the conquest occurred without battle or bloodshed. Muhammad forgave Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind bint Utbah, who had allegedly chewed the liver of Muhammad’s uncle, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, during the Battle of Uhud.

Abu Sufyan travelled back and forth between Mecca and Madina, still trying to reach a settlement. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad’s uncle al-Abbas, though some scholars consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas’s descendants, the Abbasid dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas’s role and downplayed the role of Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbasids’ enemies.

Later life
After the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufyan fought as one of Muhammad’s commanders in the subsequent wars. During the Siege of Taif, he lost an eye.
When Muhammed died in 632, Abu Sufyan was in charge of Najran.

Abu Sufyan also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, in which he lost his second eye. He played a very important role in the war, being the naqeeb (chief of staff) of the Muslim army. He fought under command of his son Yazid bin Abi Sufyan. Abu Sufyan died at the age of ninety in 650 at Medina. His kinsman Uthman Ibn Affan, who had become the third Caliph in 644, led the prayer over him.

Allah will call the guards of Hell

Our group or his group’ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

“Abu Jahl said, `If I see Muhammad praying at the Ka`bah, I will stomp on his neck.’ So this reached the Prophet , who said, Likewise, it has been recorded by Ibn Jarir. Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Jarir, all recorded it from Ibn `Abbas with the following wording: “The Messenger of Allah was praying at the Maqam (prayer station of Ibrahim) when Abu Jahl bin Hisham passed by him and said, `O Muhammad! Haven’t I prevented you from this’ He threatened the Prophet and thus, the Messenger of Allah became angry with him and reprimanded him. Then he said, `O Muhammad! What can you threaten me with By Allah, I have the most kinsmen of this valley with me in the large.’ Then Allah revealed,

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers), 18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!

Who is Abu Jahl and associates compare to what Allah has for them?
 Stay Steadfast

Then Allah says,
كَلاَّ لاَ تُطِعْهُ
(Nay! Do not obey him.) meaning, `O Muhammad! Do not obey him in what he is forbidding from such as steadfastness in worship and performing worship in abundance. Pray wherever you wish and do not worry about him. For indeed Allah will protect you and help you, and He will defend you against the people.’
وَاسْجُدْ وَاقْتَرِب
(Fall prostrate and draw near (to Allah)!)
This is just like what has been confirmed in the Sahih of Muslim on the authority of Abu Salih who reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَهُوَ سَاجِدٌ، فَأَكْثِرُوا الدُّعَاء»
(The closest that a servant can be to his Lord is when he is in prostration. Therefore, make abundant supplications (i.e., while prostrating).)”

Sujud Tilawah

The sign that you see at the end of this verse indicates that you need to make sujood upon finishing reading or hearing the verse.

When reading the Qur’an, if you come across this symbol you should pause, perform sajdah, and then return to your reading. If the verse is being recited in the Salah, the Imam will stop, perform sajdah, then stand up again and continue with his recitation.

I have prostrated my face to the One Who created it, and gave it hearing and sight by His might and His power. Glory is to Allah, the Best of Creators (Tirmidhi, Ahmad)
Let’s begin to memorise this Insya Allah.

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Al Alaq 96: 15-16

15. Nay! if He (Abû Jahl) ceases not, we will catch Him by the forelock,
16. a lying, sinful forelock!

In these ayat Allah is giving warning to the one (Abu Jahl) who is preventing Prophet salllahu alaihi wasalam to stop what he does. Or else Allah will grab him by his forelock.
Circle the Arabic words for
i. Forelock
ii. Lying
iii. Sinful
The Forelock
Linguistic explanation:

Forelock means lock of hair at forehead. In explanation of Allah’s verse: ‘We shall seize him by the forelock’, Al Faraa said; ‘it is the forehead that He (Allah) shall seize Abu Jahl to drag him i.e., a sign of humiliation and disgrace.’

Commentators’ explanation:
Al Alousi said; “The forelock as described in the verse, indicates in the first place that this person is lying and sinful, and due to Abu Jahl’s obstinate lying and sins, every part of him is lying and sinning .” Al Alousi also said; “The forelock is specifically mentioned here because the cursed Abu Jahl used to take good care of it by combing and perfuming, and because seizing the forelock is the utmost humiliation for any Arab…”

Some Quran commentators say: “The aim is not a lying forelock. But it is used metaphorically, not in the strict sense of the term, i.e., it is the forelock of a liar and sinful. Since the forelock is the forehead, the description of lying refers to the possessor, as it could not be a place or source of lying.

In his “Musnad”, Ahmed referred to the Prophet’s Hadith which points out to the forelock. It was narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said;

“O, my Lord I am Your slave and the son of Your slave and the son of Your bondmaid, my forelock is at Your Hands, … ” .

This Hadith reveals that man’s fate is at Allah’s Hands, as well as man’s forelock, thus indicating, as the Verse above, that the forelock plays an important role in guiding and controlling man’s behaviour.

So, what is the reason underlying the use of forelock? What is the hidden organ behind the forehead – that part which is responsible for the person’s character and which controls man’s behaviour and actions of truthfulness and lying, right and wrong, and which if subjugated, man’s behaviour can be controlled, as indicated in the book of “Gray’s anatomy ” edited by Warwick & Williams.

Scientific facts:
Man’s brain contains the following main lobes:
1- Frontal lobe.
2- Occipital lobe.
3- Temporal lobe.
4- Parietal lobe.

For each lobe, there is a functional role, which is at the same time complementary to the other body functions. Having dissected the forehead, the frontal lobe was found to be the part lying behind. The frontal lobe is characterized, apart from the animal counterpart, with the regions responsible for behaviour and speech being developed and distinct as per the anatomic and functional levels.
• The Frontal lobe is a big lobe situated in front of the central groove, and contains five neurological centres that vary in location and position. These centres are:
1- Primary Motor Area that helps move the voluntary muscles of the left side of the body.
2- Secondary Motor Area that helps move the voluntary muscles of the right side of the body.
3- Frontal Eye Field that helps move eyes to the opposite sides compatibly.
4- Motor Speech Area of Broca that coordinates movements among organs of speech, such as larynx, tongue and face.
5- Pre-Frontal Cortex, which lies directly behind the forehead, represents the bigger part of the frontal lobe, and its function is responsible for forming the person’s character and also has an effect in determining the ability of taking initiative and judgment.
• Since the Prefrontal cortex lies directly behind the forehead and deep under the forelock, it directs some of man’s behaviour such as characteristics of truthfulness and lying, right and wrong, and distinguishes among each of these characteristics.
• Electronic Studies of brain and electric studies of organ functions revealed that patients and animals subjected to damage of frontal lobes, often suffer a diminution of mental abilities. Any deficiency affecting the frontal lobe can change the natural behaviour of man that may reach to the extent of doing evil actions, and deterioration of the moral principles, the memory, and the ability to solve mental issues.
• Frontal lobes of brain are considered the centre of the initiative of lying. All mental activities of lying are conducted therein and then transferred to messengers organs through the action of lying. The evil actions are also planned for in this lobe before being transferred to action organs. The lobe is also responsible for wrong actions being a centre of direction and control, as indicated in Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The miracle side:
The miracle side in the above Quranic verse and the Honourable Hadith of the Prophet is that they refer very accurately to the frontal lobe, lying deep at man’s forelock, as being the centre of decision to control man’s actions of truthfulness, lying, right, wrong, balance or perversion. This has been revealed by modern scientific studies in the second half of the 20th century.
We prostrate on the frontal lobe which has the centre of decision making. When prostrating and worshipping Allah, the Moslem’s forelock is certified as truthful and right .

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Al Alaq 96: 9-14 (Abu Jahl)

9. have You (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) seen Him (i.e. Abû Jahl) who prevents,

10. a slave (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) when He prays?

11. tell Me, if He (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) is on the guidance (of Allâh)?

12. or enjoins piety?

13. tell Me if He (the disbeliever, Abû Jahl) denies (the truth, i.e. This Qur’ân), and turns away?

14. knows He not that Allâh does see (What He does)?


Abu Jahl Tried to Prevent the Prophet from Praying

The second part of the surah is revealed when the Prophet salllahu alaihi wasalam when he (s.a.w) is preventing from praying particularly by Abu Jahl.

Imam Muslim (may Allah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: Abu Jahl asked, “Does Muhammad rub his face in the dust (i.e. does he prostrate when he prays at the K’abah) when he is among you?” He was told, “Yes.” He said, “By al-Laat and al-‘Uzza, if I see him doing that, I will step on his neck or I will rub his face in the dust.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came and prayed. He (Abu Jahl) had claimed that he would step on his neck, but suddenly all they saw was that he was running away, raising his hands to protect himself. It was said to him, “What is the matter with you?” He said, “There is a ditch of fire and terror and wings between me and him. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If he had come near me, the angels would have snatched him piece by piece.” Then Allah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning):

9. have You (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) seen Him (i.e. Abû Jahl) who prevents,

10. a slave (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) when He prays?
Even though these verses are related to Abu Jahl, who is one of those who prevent Prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam to pray, these verses are also meant for those who make it difficult and prevent people from praying.
Abu Jahal

Abu Jahal’s actual name was Amr ibn Hisham but he was commonly known as Abu Hakam (“Father of Wisdom”) among the Quraysh as he was considered a wise man. His relentless hostility and belligerence towards Islam earned him the name Abu Jahal (Father of Ignorance) among the Muslims. He was a member of the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh.

Abu Jahal was not a real uncle of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) [not his father’s real brother] but his father’s cousin. He was a staunch polytheist and greatly disliked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), taking any opportunity to rebuke and publicly humiliate him.

He was one of the greatest persecutors of the Muslims. When a Muslim convert was discovered among the hierarchy of a tribe, Abu Jahal would reprimand the convert and then ridicule him in front of his fellow tribesmen so he would lost their respect. When he discovered a trader had converted to Islam he gave orders that no one should engage in business with him. As a result, the convert trader was unable to sell his wares and became impoverished.

Convert slaves belonging to the polytheist Quraysh received the harshest punishment. Abu Jahal beat Harithah bint al-Muammil (may Allah be pleased with her), one such slave, for her conversion to such an extent that she lost her eyesight. He attacked Sumayyah bint Khayyaṭ, the mother of Ammar (may Allah be pleased with him) and inflicted on her mortal wounds by stabbing her with a spear in her private parts. This blessed lady was the first to meet martyrdom in the cause of Islam.

Prophet Make du’a Asking Allah to Guide one of the two ‘Amrs

“O Allah, guide one of the two ‘Amr’s”

Allah’s Messenger prayed that Allah guides one of the two ‘Amr’s (‘Umar bin al Khattab, or ‘Amr bin Hisham [Abu Jahl]).

This means that Allah’s Messenger saw something good in him, and if he did become Muslim he would bring alot of good and honor to the Muslims. Out of the two; Umar bin al Khattab became Muslim.

The words in the hadith signify; If he (Abu Jahl) had accepted Islam, he could have been like ‘Umar in his greatness and benefit (of being the second best man after the Prophets’ of Allah).

Allah said in surah at-Teen:
لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الِْنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ . ثُمّ رَدَدْنَاهُ أَسْفَلَ سَافِلِينَ
We have certainly created man in the best of stature; Then We return him to the lowest of the
low, [at-Teen 95:4-5]

Abu Jahl was made in a perfect form, with characteristics of the greatest people on Earth (loyalty, manhood, strength, honour, perseverance etc.) however – he was rejected to the lowest of the low for using all these great characteristics for disbelief / polytheism and oppression.

When Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) embraced Islam, he was determined to announce his new faith to the Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) enemies and the first place he went to was the house of Abu Jahal. Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) knocked on his door, Abu Jahl came out and greeted him,“Welcome! What brings you here?” “I have come to tell you that I have embraced the religion of Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad,” Umar calmly stated. Abu Jahl heard this and disgustedly said, “May God ruin you and what you have brought!” and slammed the door shut.

The Similarities between ‘Umar (bin al Khattab) and ‘Amr bin Hisham [Abu Jahl] : He had the exact same characteristics as ‘Umar, but what destroyed him?

Arrogance. Just like Iblees/shaytan’s arrogance destroyed him.

Both ‘Umar and ‘Amr (Abu Jahl) had nationalism and tribalism before Islam.
Both Umar and Abu Jahl were made in a perfect form, with characteristics of the greatest people on Earth (loyalty, manhood, strength, honour, perseverance etc.) however – Abu Jahl was rejected to the lowest of the low for using all these great characteristics for disbelief / polytheism and oppression.

The main difference however is that Abu Jahl had an Ego which prevented him from his Islam, whereas ‘Umar humbled himself and submitted in Islam.

People are able to get rid of their nationalism, however – it is harder to remove the Ego personally, and requires effort to humble yourself to a truth. This is where ‘Umar achieved success, and ‘Amr [Abu Jahl] did not.

Abu Jahl actually liked the message of Allah’s Messenger.

It’s reported in the Seerah of Ibn Is-haaq that; Akhnas bin Shuraiq, Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan bin Harb (al Umawi) [before he became Muslim] approached the apartment of Allah’s Messenger during the night.

Allah’s Messenger was reciting the Qur’an in Tahajjud / Qiyam al Layl (the Night prayer) – and all of them went secretly to listen to it. Then they sneaked back, and caught each other – what are you doing they asked each other? They gradually all admitted they were secretly listening to the Qur’an. They promised they would not come back, but surprisingly the next night they caught each other secretly again.
This happened again the following night the day after. They finally promised not to come here again, otherwise the youth might find out and the honour of their tribe will be discredited (since Banu Umayyah [the tribe of Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan] always competed for power with Banu Hashim [the tribe of Prophet Muhammad].)

So Akhnas bin Shuraiq later on asks Abu Sufyan what he thinks about the Qur’an. Abu Sufyan tells that he believes its the truth. So they go to Abu Jahl and ask him what he thinks about the Qur’an, so Abu Jahl replies;

“Of course it is the truth. We’re Banu ‘Aamir (from Banu Umayyah), whenever they fight, we fight, whenever they’re generous, whenever they do good, we do good. Now one of their people have these words (the Qur’an), we will never get words like this. If we accept him as a Messenger, Banu ‘Aamir loses forever.

Abu Jahl in Battle of Badr

As befitting a general, Abu jahl was well-protected during the battle by men carrying swords and spears. He was so well guarded no Muslim could even get near him.

A young boy told Abdur Rahman bin Auf, “Show me Abu Jahl.”
Abdur Rahman replied, “What have you to do with him?”
“I have been told that he vilifies the Prophet sallalahu alaihi wasalam. By the One in whose hand my life is, I shall kill him when I see him, or shall be killed by him!”
Another young boy told Abdur Rahman the same thing. Suddenly, Abdur Rahman spotted Abu Jahl on the battlefield and pointed him out to the young boys. They attacked him fiercely with their sword, and Abu Jahl fell to the earth. After the battle, they both presented themselves before the prophet sallahu alaihi wasalam, each claiming to have killed Abu jal. He looked at their swords and proclaimed, “Both of you have killed him.”

The young boys were Mu’adh ibn Afra and Mu’adh ibn “Amr. The first is said to have been martyred in the same battle, but Mu’adh remained alive till the Caliphate of Uthman. The Prophet sallahu alaihi wasalam gave him Abu Jahl belongings.

Abdullah bin Mas’ud, who found Abu Jahl dying in the battlefield, placed his leg on his old enemy’s neck and caught hold of his beard to behead him, “Hasn’t Allah disgrace you, O enemy of Allah?”

Even as he lay dying Abu Jahl was unrepentant. “For what have I been disgraced? Is there anybody above the man you have killed? I only wish someone other than the farmer had killed me. Tell me, who was victorious today?”

Allah and His Messenger,” Abdullah said.
“O herdsman! You have mounted a very difficult place,” Abu Jahl responded. Abdullah then cut his head off and placed it before the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasalam.

“Allah is the greatest! Allah praise is due to Allah.” The prophet sallallahu alaihi wasalam cried. “He has proven His promise to be true, helped His servants, and defeated the opposite army.” Gazing at Abu Jahl’s head before him, the Prophet sallalalhu alaihi wasalam said, “He was the Pharoah of his nation.


In these set of ayahs, Allah makes comparison of the one who prays against those who are preventing and the one who prevents him to pray

The one who prays :
– Upon the guidance of Allah
– Strive for piety.
The one who prevents praying :
He denies and turns away from the truth

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Al Alaq 96: 6-8

6. Nay! Verily, man does transgress All bounds (in disbelief and evil deed, etc.).

7. because He considers himself self-sufficient.

8. Surely! unto Your Lord is the return.


Kalla is a stern warning. It is a higher degree than the Arabic word “la”.


The word Taghut is derived from ‘Tughyan’. The literal meaning of this word is ‘crossing the border or to pass the limit’.

The definition of TAGHUT in the Shariah is ‘anyone who exceeds the proper limits by ascribing to himself any of the rights of Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala) and makes himself a partner with Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala)’.

Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) defined Taghut as:

Anything or anyone worshipped apart from Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala).

  • Includes a lot of things that are worshipped such as idols.
  • Satan (the biggest Taghut), witches, soothsayers (claiming knowledge of the unseen),
  • those who are pleased with people directing acts of worship to them,
  • those who legislate (making things « halal» which Allah has declared « haram » and making things « haram » which allah declared « halal».).

All these are Tawaghit (plural of taghut) that every Muslim should disassociate himself from them and from those who worship them.”

Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab categorise taghut as

  • The Devil who calls the people to worship other than Allaah. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Did I not command you O children of Aadam, that you should not worship the Devil. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.” [YaaSeen:36:60]

  • The tyrannical and oppressive ruler who changes Allah’s rulings. The proof for this is Allah’s saying:

 “Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim to have faith in that which has been revealed to you, and that which was revealed before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Taaghoot, when they have been ordered to reject them? But the Devil wishes to lead them far astray.” [Nisaa: 4:60]


  • The one who judges by other than what Allah has revealed, and the proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

 “And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, then they are the disbelievers.” [Maa’idah: 5:44]

  • The one who claims to have knowledge of the Unseen, apart from Allah. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“He alone is the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He does not disclose His Unseen matters to anyone. Except to a messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him.” [Jinn: 72: 26-27]

  • The one who is worshipped apart from Allah, while being pleased with being worshipped. The proof for this is Allah’s saying:

 “And whoever amongst them says: ‘Verily, I am a God besides Him (Allaah)’, then this person’s recompense will be the Hellfire. That is the way We recompense the wrongdoers.” [Anbiyaa: 21:29]

In this verse, Allah says that man has made transgress. Transgress means go beyond the allowed limit and this is tughyan. And those who do this is a taghut. Allah further explains that the reason why people transgress is because they think they are self sufficient.

Self  Sufficient

Allah informs that man is very pleased, most evil, scornful and transgressive when he considers himself self-sufficient and having an abundance of wealth.

When we say someone is self sufficient, this means they are able to live and thrive completely on their own, without looking to anyone for help or assistance. Being self-sufficient in worldly matters is a good thing – it is better to provide for yourself than to have to ask someone else for help.  This being self-sufficient should not be mistaken with the certain lifestyle that people adopt. Some do their own farming and herd their own animals, living off the grid and producing renewable energy themselves and so on.

However it is not good to be self-sufficient from Allah. We should instead be thankful for Allah’s provision and turn to Him first when we need something.

What is referred in the verse is, when one feels he is self sufficient, he does not see the need for Allah. He thinks all the good he has is all from his own work and effort. When he attains all the good things of the dunya, he became proud and went beyond the boundary set by Allah.

Allah threatens this group of people that in the end the place of return is to their Lord. Explain why you think this is a threat

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