Al Alaq 96: 17-19 ABu Jahl’s Companions

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers),
18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!
19. Nay! (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam))! do not obey Him (Abû Jahl). fall prostrate and draw near to Allâh!

Abu Jahl’s Associates

Allah further challenges Abu Jahl to call his helpers. Abu Jahl is one of the leaders of the Quraysh and his tops associates were also among the leaders of Quraysh.

Among them are
i. Utbah ibn Rabi’ah

ʿUtba b. Rabīʿah bin ʿAbd Shams is one of the chiefs of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, who refused to follow Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam . He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind was the wife of Abū Sufyān, and she avenged herself at Uhud on her father’s killer Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib.

Shocked by the number of adherents of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam, ʿUtba, having consulted the other chiefs of the Quraysh, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda.

Undaunted by any harm or injury that befell them, their faith unshaken, the Muslims kept on increasing in numbers and strength. They proclaimed their faith loudly and performed their prayers publicly all to the alarm of quraysh, who were at a loss what to do next. For a moment they thought that they could get rid of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam by satisfying what they took to be his personal ambitions. Obviously they forgot the greatness of the islamic call, the purity of its spiritual essence, and its noble transcendence of any political partisanship. `Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, one of the distinguished leaders of arabia, convinced the quraysh at one of their community meetings to delegate him to approach Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam with a number of alternative offerings of which, he thought, Muhammad would surely accept one. He therefore went to Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and said, “o nephew, you certainly enjoy among us great eminence and noble lineage, and you have brought about a great issue and divided your people. Listen to me for I am about to make several offers to you, certain as I am that one of them will prove satisfactory to you. If by bringing about the conflict you did, you have sought to achieve some wealth, know that we are prepared to give you of our wealth until you become the richest man among us. If, on the other hand, you desired honor and power, we would make you our chief and endow you with such power that nothing could be done without your consent. Even if you wanted to be a king, we should not hesitate to crown you king over us. finally, if you are unable to cure yourself of the visions that you have been seeing, we shall be happy to seek for you at our expense all the medical service possible until your health is perfectly restored.” when he finished, Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam recited to him, the surah “al sajdah.” [qur’an, 32].

`Utbah listened attentively to the divine recitation. Facing him was a man devoid of all ambition for wealth, prestige, honor, power, or sovereignty. Neither was he sick. Facing him was indeed a man telling the truth, calling to the good, answering him with arguments yet more soundly and sublimely expressed than any he had ever heard. When Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam finished, `Utbah returned to quraysh spellbound by the beauty and sublimity of what he had seen and heard and by the greatness of this man and his eloquence. The quraysh were obviously not happy with this turn, nor did they agree with `Utbah’s opinion that they should leave Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam for all the arabs together to deal with; they would thereby reap a harvest of pride in the event that Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam wins, or enjoy an effortless victory in the event he loses, in fact, quraysh resumed their attacks upon Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and his followers, intensified their aggression, and inflicted upon his companions all sorts of injuries from which Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam was saved only through the protection of Abu Talib, banu hashim, and banu al muttalib.

 

ii. Shaibah ibn Rabiah

Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah (Arabic: شيبة بن ربيعة) was the brother of Utbah ibn Rabi’ah belonging to the clan of Banu Abd Shams (parent clan of Banu Umayyah) from the tribe of Quraysh of Mecca. He was also a champion of the Meccan army sent along with his brother Utbah and his nephew Walid ibn Utbah in the Battle of Badr in around 624 AD (2 A.H.). In a three against three matches before the actual battle began, he was killed by Ali ibn Abi Talib who was the cousin and sahaba of the Prophet Muhammad.

iii. Walid ibn Utbah

Walid ibn Utbah (died 624) was the son of Utba ibn Rabi’ah and brother of Hind bint Utbah (Wife of Abu Sufyan) of the Quraysh tribe in the region of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

He was a fierce Meccan warrior who was killed by Ali (Ali ibn Abi Taleb) in the traditional 3 champions’ combat duel on the day of the Battle of Badr before the full battle began. Walid, his father and uncle were the three champions of the Meccan army in duel against Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Ali, and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In the combat duel, Walid’s father (Utbah bin Rabiah) was killed by Hamza. And after his uncle first wounded Ubaidah with his dagger after his sword was hit away by Ubaidah, Then Hamza and Ali had killed him.

iv. Umayah ibn Khalaf
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of the of Bani Jumah. He is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Ribah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam.

Umayyah was involved in the pagan religious ceremonies of Mecca, where he distributed perfume in the square of the Kaaba. After Muhammad began to preach against idolatry, Umayyah became a staunch opponent of the new teaching.

He also known for his action, that he subjected his slave Bilal ibn Ribah to torture for having adopted Islam. Bilal was made to lie down on hot burning desert sand and had a heavy stone put on his chest which made breathing difficult for him. Since he still refused to denounce Islam, a heavy person was to jump on the stone. Bilal used to repeat “Ahad! Ahad! (One God! One God!).

Ummayah had a close friend named Abdul Rahman ibn Awf, but their friendship was strained when Abdu Amr converted to Islam. Abdu Amr changed his name to Abd al-Rahman and later emigrated to Medina. Because of their friendship, the two formed a written agreement, according to which Abdul Rahman was to protect Umayah’s property and/or family in Medina, while Umayyah would protect Abd-al-Rahman’s in Mecca. When Abd al-Rahman’s name was mentioned in the document, Umayyah protested, saying “I do not know Ar-Rahman” and requested that the pre-Islamic name “Abdu Amr” should be used, to which Abd al-Rahman yielded.

Umayyah was also an intimate friend with Sa’d ibn Mua’dh, the leader of the Banu Aus. When Umayyah was in Medina on his way to Syria, he used to stay with Sa’d and when Sa’d was in Mecca, he used to stay with Umayah.

Prior to the Battle of Badr, Sa’d visited Mecca once to perform his Umrah with Umayyah, when they came across Abu Jahl. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa’d threatened Abu Jahl with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and informed Umayyah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.

Battle of Badr

In 624 CE, the Meccans decided to confront the Muslim forces that threatened a caravan from Syria led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Abu Jahl was rallying the people for war, saying “Go and protect your caravan.”

Umayyah however, anxious about Sa’d’s warning, disliked to leave Mecca, but Abu Jahl told him “O Abu Safwan! If the people see you staying behind though you are the chief of the people of the Valley, then they will remain behind with you.”

Abu Jahl urged until Umayyah said “As you have forced me to change my mind, I will buy the best camel in Mecca”. Umayyah told his wife “O Um Safwan, prepare what I need.” She said to him, “O Abu Safwan! Have you forgotten what your Yathribi brother told you?” He said, “No, but I do not want to go with them but for a short distance.” So when Umaiya went out, he used to tie his camel wherever he camped.

In the battle, Umayyah was captured by his old friend Abdul Rahman ibn Awf. He was killed by a group of Muslims led by his former slave Bilal (who was a victim of his earlier torture), in spite of Abdul Rahman’s protestations and his attempt to shield Umayyah with his own body. One of Umayyah’s sons was also killed at Badr, defending his father.

v. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب‎), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (1 September 560 – 1 August 652), was the leader of the Quraish tribe of Mecca. He was a staunch opponent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad before accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim warrior later in his life.

Opposition to Islam
Abu Sufyan was the chieftain of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, which made him one of the most powerful in Mecca. Abu Sufyan viewed Muhammad as politically ambitious, a threat to Mecca’s social order, and a blasphemer of the Quraish gods.

After Muhammed and other Muslims had migrated to Medina in 622, the Quraish confiscated the belongings they had left behind. During that period of time, caravans were accompanied by military escorts of varying strength.

Due to the hospitality Muhammad received in Medina, the Meccans feared the growing influence of the Muslims and thus were contriving to safeguard their trade routes by eliminating the religion of Islam. The Muslims of Medina were aware of such activities and began to make preparations for self-defense.

In 624, Abu Sufyan was the appointed leader of a large merchant caravan carrying a fortune of the Quraysh’s goods to Syria for trade. The caravan was escorted by a force of around 40 or 50 soldiers. Muhammad had learned that the caravan was passing close to Medina en route to Syria and organized a Muslim force of 300 men to intercept it and repossess the goods that the Quraysh had stolen from the Muslims due to their absence in Mecca. Around this time, it is related that God revealed to Muhammad that his people were now given permission to go after those who had oppressed them, driven them from their homes (in Mecca) and confiscated their property (some of which the Quraish put on this same caravan). However, the Muslim contingent Muhammad had assembled failed to intercept the caravan. They arrived after the caravan had already passed by Medina. Abu Sufyan had learned of the Muslims plan from scouts he had deployed, and in response, sent a crier to Mecca to rally the Quraish to arms against the Muslims. The Muslims ended up engaging this Meccan army, a force of around 1000 men, at the plains of Badr several days after they had failed to intercept the caravan. This conflict, the Battle of Badr, ultimately resulted in a Muslim victory. The death of most Quraish leaders in the battle not only left Abu Sufyan the leader of Mecca, but also marked the fulfillment of the Qur’anic prophecy in verse 30:3.

Abu Sufyan served as the military leader in the later Meccan campaigns against Medina, including the Battle of Uhud in 625 and the Battle of the Trench in 627, but he could not attain final victory.

Eventually the two parties agreed to an armistice, the Treaty of Hudaybiyya in 628, which allowed Muslims to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba.

When the armistice was violated in 630 by allies of the Quraish, Muhammad moved towards liberating Mecca from non-Muslim authority. Abu Sufyan, seeing that the balance had tilted in Muhammad’s favour and that the Quraish were not strong enough to hinder the Muslims from conquering the city, travelled to Madina, trying to restore the treaty. No agreement was reached between the two parties and Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca empty handed. These efforts ultimately ensured that the conquest occurred without battle or bloodshed. Muhammad forgave Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind bint Utbah, who had allegedly chewed the liver of Muhammad’s uncle, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, during the Battle of Uhud.

Abu Sufyan travelled back and forth between Mecca and Madina, still trying to reach a settlement. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad’s uncle al-Abbas, though some scholars consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas’s descendants, the Abbasid dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas’s role and downplayed the role of Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbasids’ enemies.

Later life
After the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufyan fought as one of Muhammad’s commanders in the subsequent wars. During the Siege of Taif, he lost an eye.
When Muhammed died in 632, Abu Sufyan was in charge of Najran.

Abu Sufyan also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, in which he lost his second eye. He played a very important role in the war, being the naqeeb (chief of staff) of the Muslim army. He fought under command of his son Yazid bin Abi Sufyan. Abu Sufyan died at the age of ninety in 650 at Medina. His kinsman Uthman Ibn Affan, who had become the third Caliph in 644, led the prayer over him.

Allah will call the guards of Hell

Our group or his group’ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

“Abu Jahl said, `If I see Muhammad praying at the Ka`bah, I will stomp on his neck.’ So this reached the Prophet , who said, Likewise, it has been recorded by Ibn Jarir. Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Jarir, all recorded it from Ibn `Abbas with the following wording: “The Messenger of Allah was praying at the Maqam (prayer station of Ibrahim) when Abu Jahl bin Hisham passed by him and said, `O Muhammad! Haven’t I prevented you from this’ He threatened the Prophet and thus, the Messenger of Allah became angry with him and reprimanded him. Then he said, `O Muhammad! What can you threaten me with By Allah, I have the most kinsmen of this valley with me in the large.’ Then Allah revealed,

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers), 18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!

Who is Abu Jahl and associates compare to what Allah has for them?
 Stay Steadfast

Then Allah says,
كَلاَّ لاَ تُطِعْهُ
(Nay! Do not obey him.) meaning, `O Muhammad! Do not obey him in what he is forbidding from such as steadfastness in worship and performing worship in abundance. Pray wherever you wish and do not worry about him. For indeed Allah will protect you and help you, and He will defend you against the people.’
وَاسْجُدْ وَاقْتَرِب
(Fall prostrate and draw near (to Allah)!)
This is just like what has been confirmed in the Sahih of Muslim on the authority of Abu Salih who reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَهُوَ سَاجِدٌ، فَأَكْثِرُوا الدُّعَاء»
(The closest that a servant can be to his Lord is when he is in prostration. Therefore, make abundant supplications (i.e., while prostrating).)”

Sujud Tilawah

The sign that you see at the end of this verse indicates that you need to make sujood upon finishing reading or hearing the verse.

When reading the Qur’an, if you come across this symbol you should pause, perform sajdah, and then return to your reading. If the verse is being recited in the Salah, the Imam will stop, perform sajdah, then stand up again and continue with his recitation.

I have prostrated my face to the One Who created it, and gave it hearing and sight by His might and His power. Glory is to Allah, the Best of Creators (Tirmidhi, Ahmad)
Let’s begin to memorise this Insya Allah.

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