Monthly Archives: December 2013

Shirk in Tawheed Uluhiah/ Tawheed of Worship/ Tawheed of Eebadah

We used this book – Explaining Shirk by Sheikh Uthaymeen to explain in further details.

Any acts of worship that is other than Allah and the reward of worship is sought from the creation instead of the Creator falls under Shirk in Tawheed Uluhiyah or shirk in Tawheed of Eebadah.

It may fall under major shirk or minor shirk.

MAJOR SHIRK

When any worship is directed to other than Allah. This is exactly what prophets were sent by Allah to call mankind away from

An Nahl 19: 36

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Tâghût (all false deities, etc. i.e. do not worship Tâghût besides Allâh).” Then of them were some whom Allâh guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied (the truth). 

One of the meaning of taghuts is worshiping other than Allah.

A lot of emphasis has been placed on the evil of shirk in Eebadah because it contradicts the very purpose of our creation

Dhariyaat 51: 56

And I (Allâh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). (56)

Major shirk of this kind is an act of rebellion against the Lord of the Universe, and thus it is an ultimate sin. It is a sin so great that it virtually cancels out the good deeds and the place is hell (if he does not repent before he dies).

False religion is also based on this shirk. False religion will ask its followers to worshup the creation and not the creator

i. Christians call to worship a man – Prophet of God Jesus alalihi salam.

ii. Catholics pray to Mary the Mother of God.

iii. They also worship angels like Michael who is honoured on the 8th May and 29th September. there is also Michaelmas day as St. Michael as well as human saints

iv. There are Muslims who fall in this class who make du’a t Prophet muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam or mystics saints.

MINOR SHIRK

Mahmood ibn Lubayd reported that Allaah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said,

“What I fear most for you is minor shirk (ash-shirk al-Asghar)”
The companions asked, “O Messenger of Allaah! What is minor shirk?”
He replied, “Ar-Riyaa, for verily on the Day of Resurrection when people are receiving their rewards Allaah will say:
‘Go to those whose admiration you sought in the world and see if you can find any reward from them.’”

Collected by Ahmad, at-Tabaraanee and al-Bayhaqee and authenticated in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah, vol.2, p.671, no.951.

Mahmood ibn Lubayd also said,

“ The Prophet (sallaALLAHU alaihiwasallam) came out and announced, ‘O people, beware of secret shirk!’ The people asked, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, what is secret shirk?’ He replied, ‘When a man gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer because people are looking at him, that is secret shirk.’”-Collected by Ibn Khuzaymah

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Al Alaq 96: 17-19 ABu Jahl’s Companions

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers),
18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!
19. Nay! (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam))! do not obey Him (Abû Jahl). fall prostrate and draw near to Allâh!

Abu Jahl’s Associates

Allah further challenges Abu Jahl to call his helpers. Abu Jahl is one of the leaders of the Quraysh and his tops associates were also among the leaders of Quraysh.

Among them are
i. Utbah ibn Rabi’ah

ʿUtba b. Rabīʿah bin ʿAbd Shams is one of the chiefs of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, who refused to follow Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam . He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind was the wife of Abū Sufyān, and she avenged herself at Uhud on her father’s killer Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib.

Shocked by the number of adherents of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam, ʿUtba, having consulted the other chiefs of the Quraysh, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda.

Undaunted by any harm or injury that befell them, their faith unshaken, the Muslims kept on increasing in numbers and strength. They proclaimed their faith loudly and performed their prayers publicly all to the alarm of quraysh, who were at a loss what to do next. For a moment they thought that they could get rid of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam by satisfying what they took to be his personal ambitions. Obviously they forgot the greatness of the islamic call, the purity of its spiritual essence, and its noble transcendence of any political partisanship. `Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, one of the distinguished leaders of arabia, convinced the quraysh at one of their community meetings to delegate him to approach Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam with a number of alternative offerings of which, he thought, Muhammad would surely accept one. He therefore went to Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and said, “o nephew, you certainly enjoy among us great eminence and noble lineage, and you have brought about a great issue and divided your people. Listen to me for I am about to make several offers to you, certain as I am that one of them will prove satisfactory to you. If by bringing about the conflict you did, you have sought to achieve some wealth, know that we are prepared to give you of our wealth until you become the richest man among us. If, on the other hand, you desired honor and power, we would make you our chief and endow you with such power that nothing could be done without your consent. Even if you wanted to be a king, we should not hesitate to crown you king over us. finally, if you are unable to cure yourself of the visions that you have been seeing, we shall be happy to seek for you at our expense all the medical service possible until your health is perfectly restored.” when he finished, Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam recited to him, the surah “al sajdah.” [qur’an, 32].

`Utbah listened attentively to the divine recitation. Facing him was a man devoid of all ambition for wealth, prestige, honor, power, or sovereignty. Neither was he sick. Facing him was indeed a man telling the truth, calling to the good, answering him with arguments yet more soundly and sublimely expressed than any he had ever heard. When Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam finished, `Utbah returned to quraysh spellbound by the beauty and sublimity of what he had seen and heard and by the greatness of this man and his eloquence. The quraysh were obviously not happy with this turn, nor did they agree with `Utbah’s opinion that they should leave Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam for all the arabs together to deal with; they would thereby reap a harvest of pride in the event that Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam wins, or enjoy an effortless victory in the event he loses, in fact, quraysh resumed their attacks upon Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam and his followers, intensified their aggression, and inflicted upon his companions all sorts of injuries from which Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam was saved only through the protection of Abu Talib, banu hashim, and banu al muttalib.

 

ii. Shaibah ibn Rabiah

Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah (Arabic: شيبة بن ربيعة) was the brother of Utbah ibn Rabi’ah belonging to the clan of Banu Abd Shams (parent clan of Banu Umayyah) from the tribe of Quraysh of Mecca. He was also a champion of the Meccan army sent along with his brother Utbah and his nephew Walid ibn Utbah in the Battle of Badr in around 624 AD (2 A.H.). In a three against three matches before the actual battle began, he was killed by Ali ibn Abi Talib who was the cousin and sahaba of the Prophet Muhammad.

iii. Walid ibn Utbah

Walid ibn Utbah (died 624) was the son of Utba ibn Rabi’ah and brother of Hind bint Utbah (Wife of Abu Sufyan) of the Quraysh tribe in the region of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

He was a fierce Meccan warrior who was killed by Ali (Ali ibn Abi Taleb) in the traditional 3 champions’ combat duel on the day of the Battle of Badr before the full battle began. Walid, his father and uncle were the three champions of the Meccan army in duel against Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Ali, and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In the combat duel, Walid’s father (Utbah bin Rabiah) was killed by Hamza. And after his uncle first wounded Ubaidah with his dagger after his sword was hit away by Ubaidah, Then Hamza and Ali had killed him.

iv. Umayah ibn Khalaf
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of the of Bani Jumah. He is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Ribah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam.

Umayyah was involved in the pagan religious ceremonies of Mecca, where he distributed perfume in the square of the Kaaba. After Muhammad began to preach against idolatry, Umayyah became a staunch opponent of the new teaching.

He also known for his action, that he subjected his slave Bilal ibn Ribah to torture for having adopted Islam. Bilal was made to lie down on hot burning desert sand and had a heavy stone put on his chest which made breathing difficult for him. Since he still refused to denounce Islam, a heavy person was to jump on the stone. Bilal used to repeat “Ahad! Ahad! (One God! One God!).

Ummayah had a close friend named Abdul Rahman ibn Awf, but their friendship was strained when Abdu Amr converted to Islam. Abdu Amr changed his name to Abd al-Rahman and later emigrated to Medina. Because of their friendship, the two formed a written agreement, according to which Abdul Rahman was to protect Umayah’s property and/or family in Medina, while Umayyah would protect Abd-al-Rahman’s in Mecca. When Abd al-Rahman’s name was mentioned in the document, Umayyah protested, saying “I do not know Ar-Rahman” and requested that the pre-Islamic name “Abdu Amr” should be used, to which Abd al-Rahman yielded.

Umayyah was also an intimate friend with Sa’d ibn Mua’dh, the leader of the Banu Aus. When Umayyah was in Medina on his way to Syria, he used to stay with Sa’d and when Sa’d was in Mecca, he used to stay with Umayah.

Prior to the Battle of Badr, Sa’d visited Mecca once to perform his Umrah with Umayyah, when they came across Abu Jahl. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa’d threatened Abu Jahl with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and informed Umayyah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.

Battle of Badr

In 624 CE, the Meccans decided to confront the Muslim forces that threatened a caravan from Syria led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Abu Jahl was rallying the people for war, saying “Go and protect your caravan.”

Umayyah however, anxious about Sa’d’s warning, disliked to leave Mecca, but Abu Jahl told him “O Abu Safwan! If the people see you staying behind though you are the chief of the people of the Valley, then they will remain behind with you.”

Abu Jahl urged until Umayyah said “As you have forced me to change my mind, I will buy the best camel in Mecca”. Umayyah told his wife “O Um Safwan, prepare what I need.” She said to him, “O Abu Safwan! Have you forgotten what your Yathribi brother told you?” He said, “No, but I do not want to go with them but for a short distance.” So when Umaiya went out, he used to tie his camel wherever he camped.

In the battle, Umayyah was captured by his old friend Abdul Rahman ibn Awf. He was killed by a group of Muslims led by his former slave Bilal (who was a victim of his earlier torture), in spite of Abdul Rahman’s protestations and his attempt to shield Umayyah with his own body. One of Umayyah’s sons was also killed at Badr, defending his father.

v. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب‎), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (1 September 560 – 1 August 652), was the leader of the Quraish tribe of Mecca. He was a staunch opponent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad before accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim warrior later in his life.

Opposition to Islam
Abu Sufyan was the chieftain of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, which made him one of the most powerful in Mecca. Abu Sufyan viewed Muhammad as politically ambitious, a threat to Mecca’s social order, and a blasphemer of the Quraish gods.

After Muhammed and other Muslims had migrated to Medina in 622, the Quraish confiscated the belongings they had left behind. During that period of time, caravans were accompanied by military escorts of varying strength.

Due to the hospitality Muhammad received in Medina, the Meccans feared the growing influence of the Muslims and thus were contriving to safeguard their trade routes by eliminating the religion of Islam. The Muslims of Medina were aware of such activities and began to make preparations for self-defense.

In 624, Abu Sufyan was the appointed leader of a large merchant caravan carrying a fortune of the Quraysh’s goods to Syria for trade. The caravan was escorted by a force of around 40 or 50 soldiers. Muhammad had learned that the caravan was passing close to Medina en route to Syria and organized a Muslim force of 300 men to intercept it and repossess the goods that the Quraysh had stolen from the Muslims due to their absence in Mecca. Around this time, it is related that God revealed to Muhammad that his people were now given permission to go after those who had oppressed them, driven them from their homes (in Mecca) and confiscated their property (some of which the Quraish put on this same caravan). However, the Muslim contingent Muhammad had assembled failed to intercept the caravan. They arrived after the caravan had already passed by Medina. Abu Sufyan had learned of the Muslims plan from scouts he had deployed, and in response, sent a crier to Mecca to rally the Quraish to arms against the Muslims. The Muslims ended up engaging this Meccan army, a force of around 1000 men, at the plains of Badr several days after they had failed to intercept the caravan. This conflict, the Battle of Badr, ultimately resulted in a Muslim victory. The death of most Quraish leaders in the battle not only left Abu Sufyan the leader of Mecca, but also marked the fulfillment of the Qur’anic prophecy in verse 30:3.

Abu Sufyan served as the military leader in the later Meccan campaigns against Medina, including the Battle of Uhud in 625 and the Battle of the Trench in 627, but he could not attain final victory.

Eventually the two parties agreed to an armistice, the Treaty of Hudaybiyya in 628, which allowed Muslims to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba.

When the armistice was violated in 630 by allies of the Quraish, Muhammad moved towards liberating Mecca from non-Muslim authority. Abu Sufyan, seeing that the balance had tilted in Muhammad’s favour and that the Quraish were not strong enough to hinder the Muslims from conquering the city, travelled to Madina, trying to restore the treaty. No agreement was reached between the two parties and Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca empty handed. These efforts ultimately ensured that the conquest occurred without battle or bloodshed. Muhammad forgave Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind bint Utbah, who had allegedly chewed the liver of Muhammad’s uncle, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, during the Battle of Uhud.

Abu Sufyan travelled back and forth between Mecca and Madina, still trying to reach a settlement. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad’s uncle al-Abbas, though some scholars consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas’s descendants, the Abbasid dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas’s role and downplayed the role of Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbasids’ enemies.

Later life
After the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufyan fought as one of Muhammad’s commanders in the subsequent wars. During the Siege of Taif, he lost an eye.
When Muhammed died in 632, Abu Sufyan was in charge of Najran.

Abu Sufyan also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, in which he lost his second eye. He played a very important role in the war, being the naqeeb (chief of staff) of the Muslim army. He fought under command of his son Yazid bin Abi Sufyan. Abu Sufyan died at the age of ninety in 650 at Medina. His kinsman Uthman Ibn Affan, who had become the third Caliph in 644, led the prayer over him.

Allah will call the guards of Hell

Our group or his group’ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

“Abu Jahl said, `If I see Muhammad praying at the Ka`bah, I will stomp on his neck.’ So this reached the Prophet , who said, Likewise, it has been recorded by Ibn Jarir. Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Jarir, all recorded it from Ibn `Abbas with the following wording: “The Messenger of Allah was praying at the Maqam (prayer station of Ibrahim) when Abu Jahl bin Hisham passed by him and said, `O Muhammad! Haven’t I prevented you from this’ He threatened the Prophet and thus, the Messenger of Allah became angry with him and reprimanded him. Then he said, `O Muhammad! What can you threaten me with By Allah, I have the most kinsmen of this valley with me in the large.’ Then Allah revealed,

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers), 18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!

Who is Abu Jahl and associates compare to what Allah has for them?
 Stay Steadfast

Then Allah says,
كَلاَّ لاَ تُطِعْهُ
(Nay! Do not obey him.) meaning, `O Muhammad! Do not obey him in what he is forbidding from such as steadfastness in worship and performing worship in abundance. Pray wherever you wish and do not worry about him. For indeed Allah will protect you and help you, and He will defend you against the people.’
وَاسْجُدْ وَاقْتَرِب
(Fall prostrate and draw near (to Allah)!)
This is just like what has been confirmed in the Sahih of Muslim on the authority of Abu Salih who reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَهُوَ سَاجِدٌ، فَأَكْثِرُوا الدُّعَاء»
(The closest that a servant can be to his Lord is when he is in prostration. Therefore, make abundant supplications (i.e., while prostrating).)”

Sujud Tilawah

The sign that you see at the end of this verse indicates that you need to make sujood upon finishing reading or hearing the verse.

When reading the Qur’an, if you come across this symbol you should pause, perform sajdah, and then return to your reading. If the verse is being recited in the Salah, the Imam will stop, perform sajdah, then stand up again and continue with his recitation.

I have prostrated my face to the One Who created it, and gave it hearing and sight by His might and His power. Glory is to Allah, the Best of Creators (Tirmidhi, Ahmad)
Let’s begin to memorise this Insya Allah.

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Al Alaq 96: 15-16

15. Nay! if He (Abû Jahl) ceases not, we will catch Him by the forelock,
16. a lying, sinful forelock!

In these ayat Allah is giving warning to the one (Abu Jahl) who is preventing Prophet salllahu alaihi wasalam to stop what he does. Or else Allah will grab him by his forelock.
Circle the Arabic words for
i. Forelock
ii. Lying
iii. Sinful
The Forelock
Linguistic explanation:

Forelock means lock of hair at forehead. In explanation of Allah’s verse: ‘We shall seize him by the forelock’, Al Faraa said; ‘it is the forehead that He (Allah) shall seize Abu Jahl to drag him i.e., a sign of humiliation and disgrace.’

Commentators’ explanation:
Al Alousi said; “The forelock as described in the verse, indicates in the first place that this person is lying and sinful, and due to Abu Jahl’s obstinate lying and sins, every part of him is lying and sinning .” Al Alousi also said; “The forelock is specifically mentioned here because the cursed Abu Jahl used to take good care of it by combing and perfuming, and because seizing the forelock is the utmost humiliation for any Arab…”

Some Quran commentators say: “The aim is not a lying forelock. But it is used metaphorically, not in the strict sense of the term, i.e., it is the forelock of a liar and sinful. Since the forelock is the forehead, the description of lying refers to the possessor, as it could not be a place or source of lying.

In his “Musnad”, Ahmed referred to the Prophet’s Hadith which points out to the forelock. It was narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said;

“O, my Lord I am Your slave and the son of Your slave and the son of Your bondmaid, my forelock is at Your Hands, … ” .

This Hadith reveals that man’s fate is at Allah’s Hands, as well as man’s forelock, thus indicating, as the Verse above, that the forelock plays an important role in guiding and controlling man’s behaviour.

So, what is the reason underlying the use of forelock? What is the hidden organ behind the forehead – that part which is responsible for the person’s character and which controls man’s behaviour and actions of truthfulness and lying, right and wrong, and which if subjugated, man’s behaviour can be controlled, as indicated in the book of “Gray’s anatomy ” edited by Warwick & Williams.

Scientific facts:
Man’s brain contains the following main lobes:
1- Frontal lobe.
2- Occipital lobe.
3- Temporal lobe.
4- Parietal lobe.

For each lobe, there is a functional role, which is at the same time complementary to the other body functions. Having dissected the forehead, the frontal lobe was found to be the part lying behind. The frontal lobe is characterized, apart from the animal counterpart, with the regions responsible for behaviour and speech being developed and distinct as per the anatomic and functional levels.
• The Frontal lobe is a big lobe situated in front of the central groove, and contains five neurological centres that vary in location and position. These centres are:
1- Primary Motor Area that helps move the voluntary muscles of the left side of the body.
2- Secondary Motor Area that helps move the voluntary muscles of the right side of the body.
3- Frontal Eye Field that helps move eyes to the opposite sides compatibly.
4- Motor Speech Area of Broca that coordinates movements among organs of speech, such as larynx, tongue and face.
5- Pre-Frontal Cortex, which lies directly behind the forehead, represents the bigger part of the frontal lobe, and its function is responsible for forming the person’s character and also has an effect in determining the ability of taking initiative and judgment.
• Since the Prefrontal cortex lies directly behind the forehead and deep under the forelock, it directs some of man’s behaviour such as characteristics of truthfulness and lying, right and wrong, and distinguishes among each of these characteristics.
• Electronic Studies of brain and electric studies of organ functions revealed that patients and animals subjected to damage of frontal lobes, often suffer a diminution of mental abilities. Any deficiency affecting the frontal lobe can change the natural behaviour of man that may reach to the extent of doing evil actions, and deterioration of the moral principles, the memory, and the ability to solve mental issues.
• Frontal lobes of brain are considered the centre of the initiative of lying. All mental activities of lying are conducted therein and then transferred to messengers organs through the action of lying. The evil actions are also planned for in this lobe before being transferred to action organs. The lobe is also responsible for wrong actions being a centre of direction and control, as indicated in Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The miracle side:
The miracle side in the above Quranic verse and the Honourable Hadith of the Prophet is that they refer very accurately to the frontal lobe, lying deep at man’s forelock, as being the centre of decision to control man’s actions of truthfulness, lying, right, wrong, balance or perversion. This has been revealed by modern scientific studies in the second half of the 20th century.
We prostrate on the frontal lobe which has the centre of decision making. When prostrating and worshipping Allah, the Moslem’s forelock is certified as truthful and right .
http://www.islamicmedicine.org/medmiraclesofquran/medmiracleseng.htm#fore

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Al Alaq 96: 9-14 (Abu Jahl)

9. have You (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) seen Him (i.e. Abû Jahl) who prevents,

10. a slave (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) when He prays?

11. tell Me, if He (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) is on the guidance (of Allâh)?

12. or enjoins piety?

13. tell Me if He (the disbeliever, Abû Jahl) denies (the truth, i.e. This Qur’ân), and turns away?

14. knows He not that Allâh does see (What He does)?

 

Abu Jahl Tried to Prevent the Prophet from Praying

The second part of the surah is revealed when the Prophet salllahu alaihi wasalam when he (s.a.w) is preventing from praying particularly by Abu Jahl.

Imam Muslim (may Allah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: Abu Jahl asked, “Does Muhammad rub his face in the dust (i.e. does he prostrate when he prays at the K’abah) when he is among you?” He was told, “Yes.” He said, “By al-Laat and al-‘Uzza, if I see him doing that, I will step on his neck or I will rub his face in the dust.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came and prayed. He (Abu Jahl) had claimed that he would step on his neck, but suddenly all they saw was that he was running away, raising his hands to protect himself. It was said to him, “What is the matter with you?” He said, “There is a ditch of fire and terror and wings between me and him. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If he had come near me, the angels would have snatched him piece by piece.” Then Allah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning):

9. have You (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) seen Him (i.e. Abû Jahl) who prevents,

10. a slave (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) when He prays?
Even though these verses are related to Abu Jahl, who is one of those who prevent Prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam to pray, these verses are also meant for those who make it difficult and prevent people from praying.
Abu Jahal

Abu Jahal’s actual name was Amr ibn Hisham but he was commonly known as Abu Hakam (“Father of Wisdom”) among the Quraysh as he was considered a wise man. His relentless hostility and belligerence towards Islam earned him the name Abu Jahal (Father of Ignorance) among the Muslims. He was a member of the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh.

Abu Jahal was not a real uncle of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) [not his father’s real brother] but his father’s cousin. He was a staunch polytheist and greatly disliked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), taking any opportunity to rebuke and publicly humiliate him.

He was one of the greatest persecutors of the Muslims. When a Muslim convert was discovered among the hierarchy of a tribe, Abu Jahal would reprimand the convert and then ridicule him in front of his fellow tribesmen so he would lost their respect. When he discovered a trader had converted to Islam he gave orders that no one should engage in business with him. As a result, the convert trader was unable to sell his wares and became impoverished.

Convert slaves belonging to the polytheist Quraysh received the harshest punishment. Abu Jahal beat Harithah bint al-Muammil (may Allah be pleased with her), one such slave, for her conversion to such an extent that she lost her eyesight. He attacked Sumayyah bint Khayyaṭ, the mother of Ammar (may Allah be pleased with him) and inflicted on her mortal wounds by stabbing her with a spear in her private parts. This blessed lady was the first to meet martyrdom in the cause of Islam.

Prophet Make du’a Asking Allah to Guide one of the two ‘Amrs

“O Allah, guide one of the two ‘Amr’s”

Allah’s Messenger prayed that Allah guides one of the two ‘Amr’s (‘Umar bin al Khattab, or ‘Amr bin Hisham [Abu Jahl]).

This means that Allah’s Messenger saw something good in him, and if he did become Muslim he would bring alot of good and honor to the Muslims. Out of the two; Umar bin al Khattab became Muslim.

The words in the hadith signify; If he (Abu Jahl) had accepted Islam, he could have been like ‘Umar in his greatness and benefit (of being the second best man after the Prophets’ of Allah).

Allah said in surah at-Teen:
لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الِْنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ . ثُمّ رَدَدْنَاهُ أَسْفَلَ سَافِلِينَ
We have certainly created man in the best of stature; Then We return him to the lowest of the
low, [at-Teen 95:4-5]

Abu Jahl was made in a perfect form, with characteristics of the greatest people on Earth (loyalty, manhood, strength, honour, perseverance etc.) however – he was rejected to the lowest of the low for using all these great characteristics for disbelief / polytheism and oppression.

When Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) embraced Islam, he was determined to announce his new faith to the Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) enemies and the first place he went to was the house of Abu Jahal. Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) knocked on his door, Abu Jahl came out and greeted him,“Welcome! What brings you here?” “I have come to tell you that I have embraced the religion of Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad,” Umar calmly stated. Abu Jahl heard this and disgustedly said, “May God ruin you and what you have brought!” and slammed the door shut.

The Similarities between ‘Umar (bin al Khattab) and ‘Amr bin Hisham [Abu Jahl] : He had the exact same characteristics as ‘Umar, but what destroyed him?

Arrogance. Just like Iblees/shaytan’s arrogance destroyed him.

Both ‘Umar and ‘Amr (Abu Jahl) had nationalism and tribalism before Islam.
Both Umar and Abu Jahl were made in a perfect form, with characteristics of the greatest people on Earth (loyalty, manhood, strength, honour, perseverance etc.) however – Abu Jahl was rejected to the lowest of the low for using all these great characteristics for disbelief / polytheism and oppression.

The main difference however is that Abu Jahl had an Ego which prevented him from his Islam, whereas ‘Umar humbled himself and submitted in Islam.

People are able to get rid of their nationalism, however – it is harder to remove the Ego personally, and requires effort to humble yourself to a truth. This is where ‘Umar achieved success, and ‘Amr [Abu Jahl] did not.

Abu Jahl actually liked the message of Allah’s Messenger.

It’s reported in the Seerah of Ibn Is-haaq that; Akhnas bin Shuraiq, Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan bin Harb (al Umawi) [before he became Muslim] approached the apartment of Allah’s Messenger during the night.

Allah’s Messenger was reciting the Qur’an in Tahajjud / Qiyam al Layl (the Night prayer) – and all of them went secretly to listen to it. Then they sneaked back, and caught each other – what are you doing they asked each other? They gradually all admitted they were secretly listening to the Qur’an. They promised they would not come back, but surprisingly the next night they caught each other secretly again.
This happened again the following night the day after. They finally promised not to come here again, otherwise the youth might find out and the honour of their tribe will be discredited (since Banu Umayyah [the tribe of Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan] always competed for power with Banu Hashim [the tribe of Prophet Muhammad].)

So Akhnas bin Shuraiq later on asks Abu Sufyan what he thinks about the Qur’an. Abu Sufyan tells that he believes its the truth. So they go to Abu Jahl and ask him what he thinks about the Qur’an, so Abu Jahl replies;

“Of course it is the truth. We’re Banu ‘Aamir (from Banu Umayyah), whenever they fight, we fight, whenever they’re generous, whenever they do good, we do good. Now one of their people have these words (the Qur’an), we will never get words like this. If we accept him as a Messenger, Banu ‘Aamir loses forever.

Abu Jahl in Battle of Badr

As befitting a general, Abu jahl was well-protected during the battle by men carrying swords and spears. He was so well guarded no Muslim could even get near him.

A young boy told Abdur Rahman bin Auf, “Show me Abu Jahl.”
Abdur Rahman replied, “What have you to do with him?”
“I have been told that he vilifies the Prophet sallalahu alaihi wasalam. By the One in whose hand my life is, I shall kill him when I see him, or shall be killed by him!”
Another young boy told Abdur Rahman the same thing. Suddenly, Abdur Rahman spotted Abu Jahl on the battlefield and pointed him out to the young boys. They attacked him fiercely with their sword, and Abu Jahl fell to the earth. After the battle, they both presented themselves before the prophet sallahu alaihi wasalam, each claiming to have killed Abu jal. He looked at their swords and proclaimed, “Both of you have killed him.”

The young boys were Mu’adh ibn Afra and Mu’adh ibn “Amr. The first is said to have been martyred in the same battle, but Mu’adh remained alive till the Caliphate of Uthman. The Prophet sallahu alaihi wasalam gave him Abu Jahl belongings.

Abdullah bin Mas’ud, who found Abu Jahl dying in the battlefield, placed his leg on his old enemy’s neck and caught hold of his beard to behead him, “Hasn’t Allah disgrace you, O enemy of Allah?”

Even as he lay dying Abu Jahl was unrepentant. “For what have I been disgraced? Is there anybody above the man you have killed? I only wish someone other than the farmer had killed me. Tell me, who was victorious today?”

Allah and His Messenger,” Abdullah said.
“O herdsman! You have mounted a very difficult place,” Abu Jahl responded. Abdullah then cut his head off and placed it before the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasalam.

“Allah is the greatest! Allah praise is due to Allah.” The prophet sallallahu alaihi wasalam cried. “He has proven His promise to be true, helped His servants, and defeated the opposite army.” Gazing at Abu Jahl’s head before him, the Prophet sallalalhu alaihi wasalam said, “He was the Pharoah of his nation.

 

In these set of ayahs, Allah makes comparison of the one who prays against those who are preventing and the one who prevents him to pray

The one who prays :
– Upon the guidance of Allah
– Strive for piety.
The one who prevents praying :
He denies and turns away from the truth

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Al Alaq 96: 6-8

6. Nay! Verily, man does transgress All bounds (in disbelief and evil deed, etc.).

7. because He considers himself self-sufficient.

8. Surely! unto Your Lord is the return.

Kalla

Kalla is a stern warning. It is a higher degree than the Arabic word “la”.

Taghut

The word Taghut is derived from ‘Tughyan’. The literal meaning of this word is ‘crossing the border or to pass the limit’.

The definition of TAGHUT in the Shariah is ‘anyone who exceeds the proper limits by ascribing to himself any of the rights of Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala) and makes himself a partner with Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala)’.

Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) defined Taghut as:

Anything or anyone worshipped apart from Allah (Subhana wa ta‘ala).

  • Includes a lot of things that are worshipped such as idols.
  • Satan (the biggest Taghut), witches, soothsayers (claiming knowledge of the unseen),
  • those who are pleased with people directing acts of worship to them,
  • those who legislate (making things « halal» which Allah has declared « haram » and making things « haram » which allah declared « halal».).

All these are Tawaghit (plural of taghut) that every Muslim should disassociate himself from them and from those who worship them.”

Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab categorise taghut as

  • The Devil who calls the people to worship other than Allaah. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Did I not command you O children of Aadam, that you should not worship the Devil. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.” [YaaSeen:36:60]

  • The tyrannical and oppressive ruler who changes Allah’s rulings. The proof for this is Allah’s saying:

 “Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim to have faith in that which has been revealed to you, and that which was revealed before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Taaghoot, when they have been ordered to reject them? But the Devil wishes to lead them far astray.” [Nisaa: 4:60]

 

  • The one who judges by other than what Allah has revealed, and the proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

 “And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, then they are the disbelievers.” [Maa’idah: 5:44]

  • The one who claims to have knowledge of the Unseen, apart from Allah. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“He alone is the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He does not disclose His Unseen matters to anyone. Except to a messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him.” [Jinn: 72: 26-27]

  • The one who is worshipped apart from Allah, while being pleased with being worshipped. The proof for this is Allah’s saying:

 “And whoever amongst them says: ‘Verily, I am a God besides Him (Allaah)’, then this person’s recompense will be the Hellfire. That is the way We recompense the wrongdoers.” [Anbiyaa: 21:29]

In this verse, Allah says that man has made transgress. Transgress means go beyond the allowed limit and this is tughyan. And those who do this is a taghut. Allah further explains that the reason why people transgress is because they think they are self sufficient.

Self  Sufficient

Allah informs that man is very pleased, most evil, scornful and transgressive when he considers himself self-sufficient and having an abundance of wealth.

When we say someone is self sufficient, this means they are able to live and thrive completely on their own, without looking to anyone for help or assistance. Being self-sufficient in worldly matters is a good thing – it is better to provide for yourself than to have to ask someone else for help.  This being self-sufficient should not be mistaken with the certain lifestyle that people adopt. Some do their own farming and herd their own animals, living off the grid and producing renewable energy themselves and so on.

However it is not good to be self-sufficient from Allah. We should instead be thankful for Allah’s provision and turn to Him first when we need something.

What is referred in the verse is, when one feels he is self sufficient, he does not see the need for Allah. He thinks all the good he has is all from his own work and effort. When he attains all the good things of the dunya, he became proud and went beyond the boundary set by Allah.

Allah threatens this group of people that in the end the place of return is to their Lord. Explain why you think this is a threat

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Suratul Alaq : 1-5

1. Read! In the Name of Your Lord, who has created (all that exists),
2. has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood).
3. Read! and Your Lord is the Most Generous,
4. who has taught (the writing) by the pen [the first person to write was Prophet Idrees (Enoch)],
5. has taught man that which He knew not.

First revelation : Knowledge

As we all know, this first verses are the first verse being sent down to Prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam.

And it starts off with a command “Read”.

“The very first command issued by God in the Qur’an to humanity says: “Read!”

Subhanallah! Allah is precise in His words and nothing is done in random. It is not a coincident that Allah sends down the first revelation commanding us to read. To seek knowledge.

This should be taken seriously. There is no time that we should waste and no time to be complacent. No knowledge (except haram ones) are useless. I urge you my children to take all lessons seriously be it in formal classes or informal everyday life. Rush to seek knowledge and often make this du’a.

‘O Allaah, I ask You for knowledge which is beneficial and sustenance which is good, and deeds which are acceptable.’ 

It is out of Allah’s generosity that Allah taught man the things that he did not know. Then Allah honoured him by giving him knowledge.

Adam alaihi salam was taught the name of things

Allah stated the virtue of Adam above the angels, because He taught Adam, rather than them, the names of everything. This occurred after they prostrated to him.

Al Baqarah 2: 31-33

31. and He taught Adam All the names (of everything) , Then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of These if You are truthful.”32. they (angels) said: “Glory be to you, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is you, the All-Knower, the All-Wise.”33. He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when He had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell You that I know the Ghaib (unseen) In the heavens and the earth, and I know what You reveal and what You have been concealing?”

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah;

﴿وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا﴾

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Meaning, the names that people use, such as human, animal, sky, earth, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so forth, including the names of the other species.” Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir reported that `Asim bin Kulayb narrated from Sa`id bin Ma`bad that Ibn `Abbas was questioned,

﴿وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا﴾

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Did Allah teach him the names of the plate and the pot” He said, “Yes, and even the terms for breaking wind!”

Allah taught Adam the names of everything, their proper names, the names of their characteristics, and what they do, just as Ibn `Abbas stated about the terms for passing gas.

Knowledge sometimes is in the mind, sometimes on the tongue, and sometimes in writing with the fingers. Thus, it may be intellectual, spoken and written. And while the last (written) necessitates the first two (intellectual and spoken), the reverse is not true. For this reason Allah says,

﴿اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الاٌّكْرَمُ – الَّذِى عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ – عَلَّمَ الإِنسَـنَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ﴾

(Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.)

وَرَبُّكَ الاٌّكْرَمُ
Your Lord the Most Generous. Allah has many attributes and extremely generous is one of it. Because of this, He taught man knowledge, “who taught by means of the pen; taught man what he did not know,” Allah took him out of his mother’s womb not knowing anything, gave him the faculties of hearing and seeing, gave him a heart, and made easy the route to learning for him. He taught him the Qur’an and wisdom, and He taught him the use of the pen through which these sciences are preserved and duties and rights are precisely recorded.

There is a narration that states, “Record knowledge by writing.” There is also a saying which states, “Whoever acts according to what he knows, Allah will make him inherit knowledge that he did not know.”

Thus, it is important for us to always write down what we learn. This is part of learning.

If Muslims had internalized this core message of Islam to any degree, wouldn’t education be the highest priority in the lives of Muslims? And wouldn’t Muslim societies be models of educational attainment and excellence today?

 ‘Alaq

These Ayat inform of the beginning of man’s creation from a dangling clot.

What does this mean?

Literally the Arabic word alaq/ alaqah has 3 meanings:
i. leech
ii. suspended thing
iii. blood clot

1. “In comparing a leech to the embryo at the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two.” [The Developing Human p.8].
“Also, the embryo as this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech which feeds on the blood of others.” [Human Development as Described in Quran and Sunnah p.36].

2. The second meaning of the word alaqah is ‘suspended thing’. The suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother very appropriately fits this description.

3. The third meaning of the word alaqah is ‘blood clot’. We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot. This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage. Also during this stage the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week. So the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood.

By examining a diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the alaqah stage we would notice the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo [The Developing Human, p. 65]

So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.

1. Tafsir Ibn KathirReference

2. http://scienceislam.com/quran_human_embryonic_development.php

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Suratul Alaq : The First Quran revealed

1. Read! In the Name of Your Lord, who has created (all that exists),

2. has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood).

3. Read! and Your Lord is the Most Generous,

4. who has taught (the writing) by the pen [the first person to write was Prophet Idrees (Enoch)],

5. has taught man that which He knew not.

6. Nay! Verily, man does transgress All bounds (in disbelief and evil deed, etc.).

7. because He considers himself self-sufficient.

8. Surely! unto Your Lord is the return.

9. have You (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) seen Him (i.e. Abû Jahl) who prevents,

10. a slave (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) when He prays?

11. tell Me, if He (Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam)) is on the guidance (of Allâh)?

12. or enjoins piety?

13. tell Me if He (the disbeliever, Abû Jahl) denies (the truth, i.e. This Qur’ân), and turns away?

14. knows He not that Allâh does see (What He does)?

15. Nay! if He (Abû Jahl) ceases not, we will catch Him by the forelock,

16. a lying, sinful forelock!

17. then, let Him call upon his council (of helpers),

18. we will call the guards of Hell (to deal with him)!

19. Nay! (O Muhammad (Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam))! do not obey Him (Abû Jahl). fall prostrate and draw near to Allâh!

__________________________

Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said: The first thing that began happening with the Messenger of Allah from the revelation was dreams that he would see in his sleep that would come true. He would not see any dream except that it would come true just like the (clearness of) the daybreak in the morning. Then seclusion became beloved to him. So, he used to go to the cave of Hira’ and devote himself to worship there for a number of nights, and he would bring provisions for that. Then he would return to Khadijah and replenish his provisions for a similar number of nights. This continued until the revelation suddenly came to him while he was in the cave of Hira’. The angel came to him while he was in the cave and said, “Read!” The Messen- ger of Allah said,

«فَقُلْتُ: مَا أَنَا بِقَارِىء»
(I replied: “I am not one who reads.) Then he said, “So he (the angel) seized me and pressed me until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said: `Read!’ So I replied: `I am not one who reads.’ So, he pressed me a second time until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said:

﴿اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ ﴾
(Read in the Name of your Lord who has created.) until he reached the Ayah,

﴿مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ﴾
(That which he knew not. )” So he returned with them (those Ayat) and with his heart trembling until he came (home) to Khadijah, and he said,

«زَمِّلُونِي زَمِّلُونِي»
(Wrap me up, wrap me up!) So they wrapped him up until his fear went away. After that he told Khadijah everything that had happened (and said),

«قَدْ خَشِيتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي»
(I fear that something may happen to me.) Khadijah replied, “Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your relatives, you speak the truth, you help the poor and the destitute, you serve your guests generously, and you help the deserving, calamity afflicted people.” Khadijah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfal bin Asad bin `Abdul-`Uzza bin Qusay, who, during the period of ignorance became a Christian and used to scribe the Scriptures in Arabic. He would write from the Injil in Hebrew as much as Allah willed for him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadijah said to him, “O my cousin! Listen to the story of your nephew.” Waraqah asked, “O my nephew! What have you seen” Allah’s Messenger described what he saw. Waraqah said, “This is An-Namus whom Allah had sent to Musa. I wish I was young and could live until the time when your people would drive you out.” Allah’s Messenger asked,

«أَوَ مُخْرِجِيَّ هُمْ؟»
(Will they drive me out) Waraqah replied in the affirmative and said, “Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought, was treated with hostility and enmity; and if I should remain alive till that day then I would firmly support you.” But Waraqah did not remain. He died and the revelation paused until Allah’s Messenger became sad according to what we were told. Due to this grief he set out a number of times with the intent of throwing himself from the mountain tops. However, every time he would reach the peak of a mountain to throw himself from it, Jibril would appear to him and say, “O Muhammad! You are truly the Messenger of Allah!” Therefore, his worry would be eased, his soul would be settled and he would return (down from the mountain). Then, when the revelation did not come again for a long time, he set out as he had done before. So when he reached the peak of the mountain, Jibril appeared to him again and said to him the same as he had said before.” This Hadith has been recorded in the Two Sahihs by way of Az-Zuhri. We have already discussed this Hadith’s chain of narration, its text and its meanings at length in the beginning of our explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari. Therefore, whoever would like to read it, it is researched there, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah. So the first thing that was revealed of the Qur’an were these noble and blessed Ayat. They are the first mercy that Allah bestowed upon His servants and the first bounty that Allah favored them with.

Source
1. Tafsir ibn Kathir

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December 7, 2013 · 5:39 am