2. and what will make You know what the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is?
3. the night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allâh In that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months).
4. therein descend the angels and the Rûh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] by Allâh’s permission with All Decrees,
5. Peace! (all that night, there is peace and goodness from Allâh to his believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn.
THE REVELATION of the QURAN
The night of al Qadr is a special night that all of Muslims wait for the whole year.
Allah informs us that He sends down the Quran on the Night of al Qadr which is in the month of Ramadhan.
Allah says in surah Dukhan 44: 3
3. we sent it (this Qur’ân) down on a blessed night [(i.e. night of Qadr, Sûrah No: 97) In the month of Ramadân,, the 9th month of the Islâmic calendar].
Also in Surah al Baqarah 2: 185
185. the month of Ramadân In which was revealed the Qur’ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between Right and wrong
Ibn Abbas explained about the revelation of the quran by its timeline. Allah knows best.
Ibn `Abbas and others have said, “Allah sent the Qur’an down all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz) to the House of Might (Baytul-`Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allah based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.”
Ibn Abbas stated that the Quran was first separated from its station in the upper heavens and placed in Bayt al Izzah in the lowest heaven. Had it been Allah’s wish, the Quran could have been revealed as a whole to the Prophet sallallahu alaihi salam in a single revelation. This was how the earlier books of revelation were sent down.
Surah al Furqan 25:32
32. and those who disbelieve say: “Why is not the Qur’ân revealed to Him All at once?” Thus (it is sent down In parts), that we may strengthen Your heart thereby. and we have revealed it to You gradually, In stages. (it was revealed to the Prophet In 23 years.)
Surah al Isra’ 17: 106
106. and (it is) a Qur’ân which we have divided (into parts), In order that You might recite it to men at intervals. and we have revealed it by stages. (in 23 years).
Allah would say the Quran and the Angel Jibreel heard the Quran from Allah. Allah spoke the whole Quran and is preserved in Lawh al mahfudz. Then Allah sent the whole Quran to Baitul Izzah in Ramadhan on the Night of al Qadr. Then Allah commanded Jibreel to send down revelation that He has spoke, to Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam. This process took 23 years to complete.
The first verses revealed are the first five ayat of Suratul Alaq.
The first complete surah revealed is surah al Fatihah.
The last complete surah revealed is suratun Nasr.
The last ayat revealed is Surah al Baqarah ayat 281
Muhammad (sal Allah alaihi wasalam) would receive revelation, from Jibreel, like the loud ringing of a bell until he comprehended the revelation. This was so heavy that He would sweat alot even on a cold day. [Bukhari, Kitab al Wahy/Revelation].
Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasalam would memorise what he was taught. Muhammad (sal Allah alaihi wasalam) in the early times of revelation would sometimes recite while Jibreel is reciting the Qur’an to him in haste, in order to make sure that he is memorising the Qur’an properly. But Allah told Prophet Muhammad (sal Allah alaihi wasalam) that He would preserve it for Him in his heart. Surah al Qiyamah 75:16-18].
16. move not Your tongue concerning (the Qur’ân, O Muhammad Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam) to make haste therewith.
17. it is for us to collect it and to give You (O Muhammad Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam) the ability to recite it (the Qur’ân),
18. and when we have recited it to You [O Muhammad Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam through Jibrael (Gabriel)], Then follow You its (the Qur’ân’s) recital.
Then Prophet Muhammad (sal Allah alaihi wasalam) would tell his companions that he has received this revelation that will lead to many of them memorizing and recording it down.
Sometimes he sallallahu alaihi wasalam would receive a complete surah (i.e. surah Kawthar). Sometimes part of a surah. Sometimes he would receive one or a few verse/s, and would be told by Jibreel to place a certain verse in a certain location in a specific surah (i.e. between two other verses). Prophet Muhammad would then tell his companions to do the same with any memorization or writing they had done. The order of the verses/aayaat in each surah has never been altered by anyone.
Thus, the night of al Qadr is a very special night. It is the night when Allah sent down Quran to Baitul Izzah before being revealed in parts to Prophet Muhammad sallahu alaihi wasalam. However, according to many scholars, this night has always been a blessed night even before quran was sent down based on Surah Dukhan 44:3
3. we sent it (this Qur’ân) down on a blessed night [(i.e. night of Qadr, Sûrah No: 97) In the month of Ramadân,, the 9th month of the Islâmic calendar]. Verily, we are ever warning [mankind that Our torment will reach those who disbelieve In Our Oneness of Lordship and In Our Oneness of worship].
4.1. Lawh al Mahfuz
The texts of the Quran and sunah indicate that Allah has written all things in al Lawh al Mahfuz (Preserved Tablet). According to a hadith narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh, ‘Abdullah ibn Amr bin al Aas said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
Allah wrote the decrees of His creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth, and He said: His Throne is above the water.”
In Sunan at Tirmidhi it is narrated that ‘Ubadah ibn as Saamit related:”The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wasalam said:
The first thing which Allah created was the Pen. He (Allah) said,
‘Write!’ It said, ‘What shall I write?’ He (Allah) said: “Write the decree (al Qadr) of what has happened and what is to happen, for all eternity..”
Al Lawh al Mahfuz in which Allah has written the decrees of His creation, is given a number of names in the Quran such as
– Al Kitaab al Mubeen
– Al Imam al Mubeen
– Umm al Kitaab
– Kitaab al Mastoor
Surah al Burooj 85: 21-22
Nay! This is a Glorious Qur’ân, (Inscribed) In Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz (the preserved Tablet)!
Surah al Hajj 22:70
70. know You not that Allâh knows All that is In heaven and on earth? Verily, it is (all) In the Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz). Verily! that is easy for Allâh.
Yaseen 36: 12
12. Verily, we give life to the dead, and we record that which they send before (them), and their traces [their footsteps and walking on the earth with their legs to the Mosques for the five compulsory congregational prayers, Jihâd (holy fighting In Allâh’s Cause) and All other good and evil they did, and that which they leave behind], and All things we have recorded with numbers (as a Record) In a clear book.
At Thur 52: 1-3
by the Mount; and by the Book Inscribed. In parchment unrolled.
Az Zukhruf 43:4
4. and Verily, it (this Qur’ân) is In the mother of the Book (i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz), before us, indeed Exalted, full of wisdom.
4.2. Quran sent down in Stages
Ad Dukhan 25:32
“And those who disbelieve say: Why is not the Quran revealed to him all at once? Thus (it is sent down in parts), that We may strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages.”
Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahman as-S’adi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: That is because every time something of the Quran was revealed to him, it increased him in certainty and steadfastness, especially when there was cause for anxiety. The fact that the Quran was revealed when new developments occurred meant that it had greater impact and was more reassuring to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). And that was more effective than if it had been revealed before that, then was remembered when the new developments occurred.
“And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages,” means We revealed it slowly and sent it gradually. All of this indicates that Allah was taking care of His Book, the Quran, and His Messenger, Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), as He sent down His Book in accordance with the situations faced by the Messenger and as needed to address unfolding issues. End quote from Tafsir as-S’adi
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning) says:
Al Isra 17: 106
And (it is) a Quran which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.
Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahman as-S’adi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “at intervals” means at an easy pace, so that they might ponder it and think about its meanings, and derive knowledge from it.
4. Divine will and predestination – Dr Umar S al Ashqar (IIPH)
5. Tafsir Ibn Kathir