Also on the authority of ‘Umar, radiyallahu ‘anhu, who said:
“While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him.
He sat down close by the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, rested his knee against his thighs, and said, O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam.” Said the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, “Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform salah (ritual prayer), pay the zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka’bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it).” Said he (the man), “You have spoken truly.”
We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, “Inform me about iman (faith).” He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, “It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects.” He said, “You have spoken truly.”
Then he (the man) said, “Inform me about Ihsan.” He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, ” It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you.” He said, “Inform me about the Hour.” He (the Messenger of Allah) said, “About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner.” So he said, “Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming).” Said he, “They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings.” Thereupon the man went off.
I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allah) said, “O ‘Umar, do you know who that questioner was?” I replied, “Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said, “That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion.””
The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)
Muslim :: Book 1 : Hadith 1
This hadith contains comprehensive description about the Deen which comprised the three concepts of
This hadith has been called Umm as Sunnah that is the foundation of sunnah.
The Prophets s.a.w. were gathering (as they always do) to discuss religion matters. When the angel Gabriel approached them, they were not surprise or particularly excited for Gabriel appeared in the form of a man. So no one thought he was other than a man.
What was noted of Gabriel was his immaculate appearance. For he was a stranger, they would guess that he had been traveling. However the effects of traveling did not appear on him.
what are the general effects of traveling on us?
- looking tired
- ruffled clothes and hair
- if it’s hot, we’d probably look sweaty and tan
- looking unfamiliar with things
- looking lost.
When the “man” began to question the Prophet s.a.w., the sahabahs found strange that the “man” approve each answer as if he already had the knowledge of the matter. As the “man” is more of an examiner than an inquirer, their attention sharpened.
MUSLIM AND MU’MIN
The Prophet s.a.w described Islam here as execution of Allah’s commands.Mostly what we can see outwardly.
Iman is the correct and complete inner belief.
Both include deeds. But those who are a mu’min (true believer) is far more superior than a Muslim.
Every mu’min is a muslim but not every Muslim is a mu’min.
ISLAM AND IMAN
As we know, besides the five pillars here, Islam also includes other visible actions such as good manners, honesty, refraining from harmful activities, kindness to people and many more.
But these actions can only be done for other reason other than faith. It can merely be done because of wanting to be accepted by society. Fear of embarrassment or worldly punishment.
Allah mentioned in Surah Hujurat 49: 14-15, about the difference between Islam and Iman.
The bedouins say: “We believe.” Say: “You believe not but you only say, ‘We have surrendered (in Islâm),’ for Faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allâh and His Messenger (SAW), He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds. Verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (14) Only those are the believers who have believed in Allâh and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allâh. Those! They are the truthful. (15)
Islam or the outward submission is the minimum degree giving the rights of a Muslim. Allah will reward his deeds and intentions. Preferable to Allah is the mu’min the Muslim who has true faith.
1. Belief in Allah
that is in His existence. His perfection and absolute attributes. His superiority over all creation and that there is nothing similar to Him
2. Belief in His Angels
noble creatures created from light who have no free will but execute commands of Allah and worship Him continuously
3. belief in His Books
Allah revealed scriptures to some of His Messengers, and He revealed the Quran as the final message to mankind
4. Belief is His Messengers
That they were truthful in what they conveyed about Allah. That they were supported by miracles and that they faithfully deliver His messages to the people.
5. Belief in the last day
The day of resurrection and what was revealed concerning it.Destruction of the present universe, renewed creation, emergence from the garve, the gathering of judgment day, paradise and hellfire
6. Believe in Al Qadr
In Allah’s knowledge in all that to be ad in the fact that He has orginated and is the primary cause of all things and occurrences.
The third and the highest degree of the deen is “ihsan”.
Rasulullah s.a.w described ihsan as worshipping Allah as though ypu can see him which is a reminder that He sees you. Thus worship must be accompanied by the consciousness of Allah thus should lead to sincerity and correct intention.
Ihsan perfects every deed. It is an outward expression of taqwa and awareness of the Craetor’s knowledge and power.
Rasulullah s.a.w. response on the question of when the Hour is shows that the knowledge is only wth Allah. This indicates to us that no one possess this knowledge regardless what they claim.
However there are signs indicating that the Hour is getting nearer. There are many signs in other hadith, but in this hadith, Rasulullah s.a.w. mentioned two.
1. The slave woman will give birth to her mistress.
2. Poor people or specifically barefooted, naked and destitute shepherds competing in the loftiness of constructions.
WHO WAS THE “MAN”
Umar who narrated this hadith, stayed after the departure of the man. rasulullah s.a.w informed that the questioner is the angel Jibraeel who came for the purpose of instructing.
One of the methods of seeking knowledge is by asking questions.
The type of questions should be MEANINGFUL. Questions that will lead the questioner, the listener and the one answering to valuable knowledge and good action.
Asking good questions that will result in others to learn also. Ask good questions so we can share knowledge.
Don’t ask questions that are only meant to boast one’s knowledge or belittle the answerer.
Ibn Abbas, one of the great scholars among the sahabahs, when asked how he obtained all his knowledge, he replied, with an inquisitive tongue and a contemplating heart.
Posing questions is also a good form of teaching. A teacher should answer the question even he thinks the questioner already know the answer.
In many hadith, rasulullah s.a.w. himself will ask questions before he imparts knowledge. Asking questions will prepare the mind and heart to be ready to accept knowledge. Ready to absorb and learn.
In this hadith, rasulullah s.a.w. refer to Jibril as “the questioner” which imples full appreciation and encouragement of asking questions especially the one that will lead to knowledge.
There are many question form in the Quran as well. To serve different purposes. To provoke the mind of the reader and force one to think about what one reads.
Rasulullah s.a.w set an example in this hadith, to admit when he does not of a certain knowledge.
Al Imam Malik was asked forty questions by a man who had travelled a distant to see him, and he answered most of them by , “I don’t know and Allah knows better”. Seeing the man surprised, Imam Malik told him that when he goes back to his town, to tell the people that he met and asked al-Imam Malik questions and Imam Malik said he didn’t know the answers. Al-Imam Malik didn’t want to be accountable for giving wrong answers. Thus, if we are to become an educator or a scholar, we should have the courage to admit what we do not know. We should not give an answer which may contain incorrect information.
1. The deen comprise of three things which are Islam, Iman and Ihsan.
2. A muslim performs the pillar of Islam. Which are the shahadah, Solat, giving zakat, fasting and performing hajj
3. The pillars are the outward actions of a Muslim.
4. It should be built by faith i.e. iman.
5. Because we believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, The Judgment day and Qadr by Allah, we want to become a better Muslim.
6. A mu’min is more superior than just a Muslim.
7. We must have ihsan that is we must serve Allah like as f we could see Him. This will increase our taqwa and awareness of our actions.
8. Asking questions is part of learning process.
9. Posing question is a good technique in teaching.
10. Angel can come in the shape of a man and be seen by people.
11. The occurrence of the Hour is not revealed to Allah’s messengers or His Angels. Thus no one will know when it will happen.
12. But Allah revealed the signs for us to be aware and prepare ourselves.